68, p = 0.18). Among normal tissues, TLR4 expression was similar in the stroma and epithelium, while in tumors expression C59 was higher in the stroma relative to epithelium, i.e., the relative
expression of stromal TLR4:epithelial TLR4 is higher in malignant tissue than matched normals. TLR4 expression is associated with CRC stage We next sought to determine the relationship between TLR4 expression and CRC stage. It is often difficult to predict which patients with stage II and stage III colon find more cancer will benefit from chemotherapy [22, 23]. Thorsteinsson, et al. studied 37 patients with stage II and III colon cancer; TLR4 expression was significantly higher in stage III tumors than stage II for two of the four TLR4 probes (Medium, p = 0.061 and Long2, p = 0.092) (GSE31595) . TLR4 expression was numerically, but not statistically, higher in stage III tumors for the remaining probes (Short, p = 0.466 and Long1, p = 0.117). By contrast, advanced rectal cancer with nodal metastases has decreased TLR4 expression Dorsomorphin cost compared with earlier stage rectal cancer (coef = −0.44, p = 0.079) (Table 1) (GSE12225) . This relationship also held true when comparing subjects with nodal metastases or advanced local disease, T3N0, with node-negative, early stage rectal cancer (coef = −0.53, p = 0.029) (GSE12225). Table 1 TLR4 expression and tumor stage Rectal
cancer – GSE12225 Experimental group Control Coef p-value Adenocarcinoma Adenoma AC + CA + CC + CC(N) AA −0.4333 0.0208* T2 stage with nodal metastases No nodal Metastases T2N1 + T2N2 + T2N3 T0N0 + T1N0 + T2N0 + T3N0 + TisN0 −0.442 0.0787* T2 stage with nodes and T3 stage without nodes Lower stage without nodes T2N1 + T2N2 + T2N3 + T3N0 TisN0 + T0N0 + T1N0 + T2N0 −0.529 0.0289* Stage III relative to stage II – GSE31595 Probe Coef p-value Short probe 0.105 0.466 Thymidylate synthase Medium probe 0.43 0.061* Long probe 1 0.744 0.117 Long probe 2 0.695 0.092* Notes:  Coef = regression coefficient, AA = Adenoma, AC = Adenoma fraction from
cases with a carcinoma focus, CA, tumor fractions consisting of a mixture of adenoma and carcinoma tissue, CC = carcinomas without lymph node metastasis, CC (N) = carcinomas with lymph node metastasis, TxNx = tumor size/extension and nodal status as part of the TNM staging system, * = statistically significant. TLR4 expression is significantly lower in later stage than earlier stage rectal cancer (coef < 0 signifies a negative relationship of the experimental compared to control group, while coef > 0 signifies a positive relationship of the experimental compared to control group). Subjects having nodal metastases express lower TLR4 than those without (GSE12225). In a separate series of patients with stage II and III colon cancer, TLR4 expression was higher in stage III tumors than stage II for two of the four TLR4 probes (Medium Probe and Long Probe 2) (GSE31595).