faecalis C-14-4b; L salivarius C+28-3a) Fe – + (D7) – + (D7) 1 s

faecalis C-14-4b; L. salivarius C+28-3a) Fe – + (D7) – + (D7) 1 strain (E. gallinarum F-14-3a) G – + (D2) – + (D2) 4 strains (S. lugdenensis G-14-1a; E. sanguinicola G0-2a) Jf – - – + (D12) 3 strains N – - + (D-14, 0) + (D2,21,28) 2 strains

(L. acidophilus NCIMB 30211) P – - – + (D7) 6 strains (L. rhamnosus P0-1a/n; E. gallinarum P-14-2a; Staphylococcus sp P0-2a; S. BI-D1870 in vitro warneri P+28-2a) Q – - – - 6 strains (E. faecalis Q0-1a; Staphylococcus sp Q0-4a; Streptococcus sp Q+28-2a) Rg – - + (D-14) + (D8) 5 strains PF-02341066 purchase (E. faecalis R-14-4a and R-14-5a; W. cibaria R0-1b) S – + (D2,7,21, 28) – + (D7,21,28) 5 strains (L. fermentum S-14-2a) T – - – - 3 strains (L. rhamnosus T+28-1a; S. agalactiae T+28-4b) a D = day of faecal sample b Recurrent strains cultivated from faecal sample provided VRT752271 at two or more time points c Day +14 sample from this volunteer was provided on day 16 d Volunteer withdrew from the study on day 2 e Volunteer withdrew from

the study on day 7 f Volunteer withdrew from the study on day 12 g Volunteer withdrew from the study on day 8 Figure 5 Detection of L. salivarius and L. acidophilus strains after feeding. The colony growth after plating of the day 7 faecal sample from volunteer F are show for the neat and third serial dilutions on MRS-P agar (panels A and B, respectively). Colonies picked for PCR fingerprinting are shown by the numbered arrows. The subsequent RAPD typing analysis is shown in panel C with the lane numbers corresponding to the colony numbers. Other lanes for panel C are as follows: M, molecular size markers

(size in bp indicated); 1, L. salivarius NCIMB 30211 control and 2, L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 control. After consumption of the capsule, the L. salivarius NCIMB 30211 strain was detected on day 2 in three volunteers (B, G and S), on day 7 in two volunteers (F, see Fig. 5; S), with only volunteer S remaining faeces positive for this strain on days 21 and 28 (7 and 14 days, respectively, after feeding stopped; Table 3). Increased detection of the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 strain was also seen with 10 of the volunteers culture positive for this strain at one or more sample points during the feeding period (volunteers A-C, F, G, J, N, P, R and S), and 3 of these (A, N, and S) remained positive on days 21 and 28 (Table 3). Immune system L. salivarius NCIMB 30211 was never the dominant cultivable LAB strain and was detected at 102 to 104 per g faeces (Fig. 5). In contrast, L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 was the most dominant colony morphotype in volunteers A (day 7 and 28), B (day 2), F (day 7; see Fig. 5) and N (day 2, 21 and 28; Table 3), where it represented 38% or greater of the total LAB count. The mean LAB count for these volunteers at these time points was 1.8 ± 7.6 × 107 per g faeces indicating that L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 must have been present at a level of at least 107 per g of faeces.

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