METHODS: We used multiple linear regression to measure associations between glucose testing during pregnancy and metabolic markers at 3 years postpartum in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of maternal and infant health. We compared metabolic measures at 3 years postpartum among four groups: normal glucose challenge test (less than 140 mg/dL, n = 461); abnormal glucose challenge test but normal glucose tolerance test (n = 39); impaired glucose tolerance (a IACS-10759 single abnormal glucose tolerance test value, n = 21); and gestational diabetes mellitus
(n = 16).
RESULTS: Adjusting for age, race, parity, parental history of diabetes, and maternal body mass index at 3 years postpartum, we found women with gestational diabetes mellitus had lower adiponectin (11.2 ng/mL compared with 20.7 ng/mL) and higher homeostatic model assessments of insulin resistance (3.1 compared with 1.3) and waist circumference (91.3 cm compared with 86.2 cm) compared with women with impaired glucose tolerance or normal glucose tolerance. Women in both the impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus groups had lower high-density selleck chemicals llc lipoprotein (gestational diabetes mellitus 44.7 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance 45.4/dL compared with normal glucose tolerance 55.8 mg/dL)
and higher triglycerides (gestational diabetes mellitus 136.1 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance 140.1 mg/dL compared with normal glucose tolerance 78.3) compared with women in the normal RAD001 purchase glucose tolerance group. We found the highest values for hemoglobin
A1c (gestational diabetes mellitus 5.1%, impaired glucose tolerance 5.3%, normal glucose tolerance 5.1%) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (gestational diabetes mellitus 1.4 mg/dL, impaired glucose tolerance 2.2 mg/dL, normal glucose tolerance 1.0 mg/dL) among women with impaired glucose tolerance.
CONCLUSION: Gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy are associated with persistent metabolic dysfunction at 3 years postpartum, independent of other clinical risk factors. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:1065-73) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182325f5a”
“People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD.