Nowadays, new sequencing
Rabusertib concentration technologies can provide the adequate framework for the unrestricted sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences or of other universally conserved genes  that can be used to accurately describe prokaryotic diversity. It is expected that the samples analysed in this way can describe better the real diversity and to unveil the presence of specialist species. An interesting point that has not been addressed in our study is the consideration of the temporal dimension. Indeed, some of the samples have been taken in the same spots, in different sampling experiments performed at different times. A good example are the samples collected in lakes: in our dataset, there are six samples taken in Mono Lake (United States), five in Lake Cadagno (Switzerland), CX-6258 mw and four in Lake Kinneret (Israel), which differ among sampling times. Therefore, it would be possible to address the temporal variation of the microbial composition in these sites. But it is very difficult to discriminate between temporal and spatial factors. In this particular case, all these lakes display different types of vertical stratification, and the microbial communities
found at different depths could vary and see more be influenced by the mixing regime. A temporal analysis should therefore be performed with sets of samples where all environmental features have been well characterized. And also, as above, the heterogeneous sizes of the samples and the existence of different niches can be misleading and complicate the analysis. As far as we know, this is the most comprehensive assessment of the distribution and diversity of prokaryotic taxa and their associations with different environments. We expect that this and further studies can help to gain a better understanding of the complex factors influencing the structure of the prokaryotic communities. Methods Obtaining sequences and grouping in
samples We collected 16S rRNA gene sequences from the environmental section of GenBank database, comprising the results of many Methisazone different 16S rRNA sampling experiments. After discarding short (less than 250 bps) and long (more than 1900 bps) entries, we have obtained a data set of 399.098 16S sequences of variable length from bacterial and archaeal species. Each sampling experiment is identified by its reference (title of the study and authors), and the individual sequences are assigned to their original sample. A total of 4.334 samples were identified, that reduced to 3.502 when we eliminated those with less than five sequences. It is important to notice that the original source can describe each sample exhaustively, listing each sequence found, or rather enumerate just the different genotypes by removing the identical sequences. The second case is the most common one, in which no information about the abundance of individual genotypes is present.