Residue D223  marked with ‘!’. Secondary structure annotated based on PDB records (2XUA, 2Y6U) and RAPTORX 3-state SSE predictions (a-helix – red, b-sheet – blue). Predicted cap domain enclosed in yellow square. Figure 7 Active site within superposed structures (see Figure 5 for description). Modelled conformations of putative residues (S102, H242, E126/D31)
involved in catalysis are coloured in orange, distal D223 (B. ochroleuca) proposed in earlier work  is shown in red. A typically, the third member of catalytic triad appears to be E126 residue, where the side chain is capable of interacting with distal nitrogen of catalytic histidine, provided conformational changes allow rotation of the glutamate side chain towards histidine (see Figure 5 for conformations Smad3 signaling in modelled structures). This residue is sequentially equivalent (see Figure 7) to catalytic glutamate residues demonstrated in human epoxide hydrolase (PDB:2Y6U, E153) and epoxide hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDB:3KDA, E169). Another possibility is residue D31 – however Selleckchem BI 2536 it appears to be nonconserved in Marssonina sequence (alanine substitution). Sequencing error cannot be completely ruled out in this case, as a single nucleotide change is sufficient for aspartate to alanine substitution in this context. Notably, D31 residue position in relation to the active site histidine favorises interactions with proximal imidazole nitrogen (mean
distance of ca. 2.5 A0 across models) – suggesting possible conformational change (freeing the imidazole ring) during substrate binding. Discussion Zearalenone is one of the most dangerous mycotoxins produced by fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus. Those species are usually severe pathogens of cereals and legumes, and may cause Fusarium head blight and Fusarium ear rot of corn. These toxins are contributing to significant economic losses in livestock CB-839 mw production causing the disease known as estrogenic syndrome, which results in a sterility. Since 1988  it is known
that among the fungi of Hypocreales order, the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea have the ability for zearalenone decomposition but so far no such properties has been described in any species of the Trichoderma genus. Selected mycoparasitic Trichoderma and Clonostachys DNA ligase isolates were found to be able to reduce significantly both the production of zearalenone on medium Czapek-Dox broth with Yeast Extract  and to detoxify zearalenone. The three isolates (AN 154, AN 171 – especially AN 169) were clearly demonstrated as possible agents with verified biotransformation ability (in vitro). This finding includes the first demonstration of zearalenone lactonohydrolase activity present in a member of Trichoderma genus (AN 171 – T. aggressivum). Both gene expression and the ability of isolate AN 171 (T. aggressivum) to reduce zearalenone levels were confirmed in vitro experiments.