The ions are first reduced to atoms by means of a reducing agent

The ions are first reduced to atoms by means of a reducing agent. The obtained atoms then nucleate in small clusters that grow into particles. Depending on the availability of atoms, which in turn depends on the silver salt to reducing agent concentration ratio, the size and shape of the nanoparticles can be controlled. In this method, two elements are needed for the nanoparticle grow: a silver salt and a reducing agent [34, 35]. On the other hand, in recent times, there is a growing interest in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by ‘green’ methods.

For this purpose, biomass or extracts of different plants have been tried with success as reducing agents. For instance, in the literature, there are reports of the synthesis of silver or gold nanoparticles using extracts of different plants [17–20, 23, 24, 36–49]. The present work is part of this
of research. In our study, the reducing agent comes from extracts of Rumex

hymenosepalus, which Selleck 17DMAG is a plant rich in polyphenols. In the literature, there is no report on the synthesis of nanoparticles using extracts from this plant. It is a vegetal species abundantly present in North Mexico and in the south of the USA. In Mexico, it is collected, dried, cut, and packed for selling to the public. This plant, also known as canaigre dock or wild rhubarb, can be of interest for green synthesis because it contains a large amount of natural antioxidants. Among the antioxidant Pitavastatin cell line Ruboxistaurin in vitro molecules this plant contains, polyphenolic compounds, like flavan-3-ols (tannins) and stilbenes, are found in large quantities. These molecules are potentially strong reducing agents due to their numerous OH groups that promote their antioxidant activity [50, 51]. In this paper, we present results on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts of the plant R. hymenosepalus (Rh extracts) as reducing agent in aqueous silver nitrate solutions. We have extracted the antioxidant fractions from dried roots of the plant.

We have characterized the resulting nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase this is the first report in the literature on nanoparticle synthesis using extracts of this plant. Methods We have purchased dried, slice-cut roots of R. hymenosepalus in a local convenient store (Comercial Zazueta, Hermosillo, Mexico); we present a picture of the dried roots in the Additional file 1: Figure S1. Ethanol (99%) and silver nitrate (AgNO3 99%) are from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). For the UV-Vis calibration curves, we have used epicatechin (98%) and epicatechin gallate (95%); both molecules were purchased in Sigma-Aldrich. We have used ultra-purified water (Milli Q system, Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). In order to prepare the plant extract, we have put 15 g of a dried R. hymenosepalus sample in a flask, and then, we have added 100 ml of an ethanol/water solution (70:30 v/v).

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