The source of the increased TNF-α in the maternal circulation in

The source of the increased TNF-α in the maternal circulation in pre-eclampsia is uncertain, however, RG7204 although the placenta is an obvious candidate. Oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo leads to increased tissue concentrations and secretion of the cytokine [7], [8] and [56], and higher concentrations have been reported in pre-eclamptic placentas compared to normal controls [57]. In contrast, a detailed study of non-laboured pre-eclamptic placentas involving sampling from eight independent sites revealed no differences at the mRNA or protein levels compared to controls [58]. These authors concluded that there must be an alternative source of TNF-α, and speculated that

this may be activated maternal leucocytes or the endothelium itself. Despite the widespread recognition that maternal endothelial cell activation represents the second stage of the syndrome, no morphological studies appear to have been

performed on peripheral endothelial cells from women with pre-eclampsia. It is therefore impossible to determine at present whether ER stress occurs in these cells, and whether this could contribute to the raised levels of TNF-α. In contrast, there are several reports describing dilation of the ER in the endothelial cells of the umbilical vessels, indicating a loss of ER homeostasis [59] and [60]. If the same pathology affects the endothelial cells in both circulations during pre-eclampsia, as some authors suspect [61], then it may be that ER stress is not restricted to the placenta in pathological pregnancies. Selleck Ipatasertib Further

investigations are required to explore this possibility. Endoplasmic reticulum stress represents one component of a set of integrated cellular responses to stress. There are complex interactions between (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate it and oxidative stress, and it is likely that in many pathologies the two will co-exist. The extensive secretory activity of the syncytiotrophoblast renders it vulnerable to ER stress, and molecular and morphological evidence confirms high levels in placentas from cases of early-onset pre-eclampsia. There will be many consequences for placental development and function, including a reduction in cell proliferation leading to growth restriction, and activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Potential therapeutic interventions for pre-eclampsia must therefore be designed to address trophoblastic stress in its entirety, rather than individual stress response pathways. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Wellcome Trust (069027/Z/02/Z and 084804/2/08/Z) for their research. “
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