04). The FT was longer by 0.04 s. No significant differences were determined for the remaining parameters. Furthermore, Nicholas and Watkins (2006) determined that the flight time recorded for the females in their sample was significantly shorter than the time recorded for the males. They tested 14 swimmers of both genders, whose ages ranged selleck chemicals llc from 16 to 19 years. In addition to the FD and FT, the males also had a greater flight velocity (FV) compared with the females, but this difference was not statistically significant. In terms of the entry angle (EA), there was no statistically significant difference, and the entry angle was somewhat greater in the females compared with the males. In the research of Allen (1997), the females also had a greater entry angle compared with the men for both starting techniques, which was statistically significant.
The females had greater numeric results for reaction time, which actually means that the males were better in this parameter because they left the starting block sooner. In terms of the differences in the kinematic parameters regarding the gender of the swimmers, these differences can be based on the physiological differences that exist between the two genders. According to Beunen and Malina (2008), after the age of 14, the average physical performances of girls are consistently beyond the bounds of 1 SD below the means of boys in most tasks requiring speed, agility, balance, explosive strength, local muscular endurance, and static muscular strength, except flexibility. Male swimmers generally have a better swimming performance and achieve better results than female swimmers.
This observation was also confirmed in the analysis of the results collected for the disciplines of 50, 100 and 200 metre freestyle in the Olympic Games in Barcelona, where the authors determined that the men possessed longer stroke lengths and started, turned, and swam faster than the women (Arellano et al., 1994). Male swimmers also have different physiological and metabolic parameters after the race and different technico-tactical characteristics than female swimmers (Mason and Cossor, 2000; Thanopoulos, 2010). With respect to the measured kinematic parameters of the grab and track starts, the results obtained in this study indicate that there is no statistically significant difference between the two starting techniques.
The males had greater numeric results for all of the kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight velocity Drug_discovery and entry angle. The females also had greater numeric results for all of the kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight time. In the case of flight time, the obtained results match the results of previous research (Blanksby et al., 2002; Jorgic et al., 2010; Kruger et al., 2003; Miller et al., 2003). In a study involving 12 elite-level swimmers aged 17.7 �� 4.2, Blanksby et al.