5a, b), whereas low-intensity agroforestry (fine rings) was more

5a, b), whereas low-intensity agroforestry (fine rings) was more similar to primary forest plots than medium and

high-intensity agroforestry. Furthermore, the openland plots were more clustered than all other www.selleckchem.com/products/YM155.html habitat types and especially the bee community in openland strongly differed from all other habitat types. Fig. 4 Additive partitioning of species richness along a land-use intensification gradient with the five habitat types. Black bars showing the alpha-diversity fraction, grey bars the spatial beta-diversity (diversity between replicates) and the white bars the temporal beta-diversity fraction (diversity between phases). Different letters indicate significant differences between diversity levels between each habitat type Fig. 5 Multidimensional scaling of a bee and b plant species see more communities. Points represent the species composition and density of a certain habitat calculated with the Bray-Curtis similarity index (PF primary forest, LIA low-intensity agroforestry, MIA medium-intensity agroforestry, HIA high-intensity agroforestry, OL openland) with four and three replicates, respectively, shown by number of points. Larger distances between the points indicate larger distances in species compositions.

Rings were used to group BIBF 1120 purchase primary forests, agroforestry systems and openland. Fine rings comprise the low-intensity agroforestry plots to visualize the vicinity of species composition to primary forest Discussion Openland plots had highest bee species richness and abundance compared to agroforestry and forest plots, whereas agroforestry management type did not affect bee species richness and abundance. Even though forested habitats are closer to the natural vegetation type (primary rainforest) than un-forested habitats they do not appear to be significant habitats for maintaining high species richness of bees (already shown by Liow et al. 2001; Winfree et al. 2007). We show that managed habitats provided better food supply in the understorey than

natural habitat due to high flower below density (Potts et al. 2006), which was negatively correlated with canopy cover, a relation already found in other tropical forests (Bruna and Ribeiro 2005) and conifer stands (Lindh 2005), resulting in higher bee richness and density. Canopy cover in low-intensity agroforestry systems was very similar to primary forests, but flowering plant density was higher and thus bee richness and abundance were also higher. However, we sampled the herb layer and the understorey of the forested plots, and sampling the canopy, in particular in the primary forest, may change the picture as shown for trap nesting bees and wasps in temperate forests (Sobek et al. 2009). Openland had a significantly higher alpha but not beta-diversity than all other habitat types. Agroforestry systems had a higher spatial beta-diversity compared to primary forests, but not openland.

BN and JB declare no conflict of interest Open Access This artic

BN and JB declare no conflict of interest. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References 1. Williams I, Churchill D, Anderson J, Boffito M, Bower M, Cairns G, et al. British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with Oligomycin A nmr antiretroviral therapy 2012. GDC-0449 in vitro HIV Med. 2012;13(Suppl 2):1–85. 2. Cohen CJ, Molina JM, Cahn P, Clotet B, Fourie J,

Grinsztejn B, et al. Efficacy and safety of rilpivirine (TMC278) versus efavirenz at

48 weeks in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: pooled results from the phase 3 double-blind randomized ECHO and THRIVE Trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60(1):33–42.PubMedCrossRef 3. Nelson selleck chemical M, Girard PM, Demasi R, Chen L, Smets E, Sekar V, et al. Suboptimal adherence to darunavir/ritonavir has minimal effect on efficacy compared with lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-naive, HIV-infected patients: 96 week ARTEMIS data. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(7):1505–9.PubMedCrossRef 4. Elzi L, Marzolini C, Furrer H, Ledergerber B, Cavassini M, Hirschel B, et al. Treatment modification in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals starting combination antiretroviral therapy between 2005 and 2008. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(1):57–65.PubMedCrossRef 5. Cooper V, Moyle GJ, Fisher M, Reilly G, Ewan J, Liu HC, et al. Beliefs about antiretroviral therapy, treatment adherence and quality of life in a 48-week randomised study of continuation of zidovudine/lamivudine or switch to DOK2 tenofovir DF/emtricitabine, each with efavirenz. AIDS Care. 2011;23(6):705–13.PubMedCrossRef 6. Duran

S, Spire B, Raffi F, Walter V, Bouhour D, Journot V, et al. Self-reported symptoms after initiation of a protease inhibitor in HIV-infected patients and their impact on adherence to HAART. HIV Clin Trials. 2001;2(1):38–45. 7. Lennox JL, DeJesus E, Lazzarin A, Pollard RB, Madruga JV, Berger DS, et al. Safety and efficacy of raltegravir-based versus efavirenz-based combination. Lancet. 2009;374(9692):796–806.PubMedCrossRef 8. Li JZ, Paredes R, Ribaudo HJ, Svarovskaia ES, Metzner KJ, Kozal MJ, et al. Low-frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and risk of NNRTI-based. JAMA. 2011;305(13):1327–35.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 9. Gianotti N, Tiberi S, Menzo S, Danise A, Boeri E, Galli L, et al. HIV-1 replication capacity and genotype changes in patients undergoing treatment. J Med Virol. 2008;80(2):201–8.PubMedCrossRef 10. Mathias AA, Germa P, Lee M, et al.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2004, 70:1135–1144 PubMedCentralPubMedCros

Appl Environ Microbiol 2004, 70:1135–1144.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

28. Linderoth NA, Julien B, Flick KE, Selleckchem G418 Calendar R, Christie GE: Molecular cloning and characterization of bacteriophage P2 genes R and S involved in tail completion. Virology 1994, 200:347–359.PubMedCrossRef 29. Haggard-Ljungquist E, Halling C, Calendar R: DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages. J Bacteriol 1992, 174:1462–1477.PubMedCentralPubMed 30. Lengyel JA, Goldstein RN, Marsh M, Calendar R: Structure of the bacteriophage P2 tail. Virology 1974, 62:161–174.PubMedCrossRef 31. Christie GE, Temple LM, Bartlett BA, Goodwin TS: Programmed translational

frameshift in the bacteriophage P2 FETUD tail gene operon. J Bacteriol 2002, 184:6522–6531.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Omipalisib supplier 32. Levin ME, Hendrix RW, Casjens SR: A programmed translational frameshift is required for the synthesis of a bacteriophage ISRIB mw lambda tail assembly protein. J Mol Biol 1993, 234:124–139.PubMedCrossRef 33. Xu J, Hendrix RW, Duda RL: Conserved translational frameshift in dsDNA bacteriophage tail assembly genes. Mol Cell 2004, 16:11–21.PubMedCrossRef 34. Grainge I, Jayaram M: The integrase family of recombinase: organization and function of the active site. Mol Microbiol 1999, 33:449–456.PubMedCrossRef 35. Geer LY, Domrachev M, Lipman DJ, Bryant SH: CDART: protein homology by domain architecture. Genome Res 2002, 12:1619–1623.PubMedCrossRef 36. Christie GE, Calendar R: Bacteriophage P2 late promoters. II. Comparison of the four late promoter sequences. J Mol Biol 1985, 181:373–382.PubMedCrossRef 37. Julien B, Calendar R: Purification and characterization of the bacteriophage P4 delta protein. J Bacteriol 1995, 177:3743–3751.PubMedCentralPubMed 38. Lee TC, Christie GE: Purification and properties of the bacteriophage P2 ogr gene product. A prokaryotic zinc-binding transcriptional activator.

J Biol Chem 1990, 265:7472–7477.PubMed 39. Pountney DL, Tiwari RP, Egan JB: Metal- and DNA-binding properties and mutational analysis of the transcription activating Interleukin-3 receptor factor, B, of coliphage 186: a prokaryotic C4 zinc-finger protein. Protein Sci 1997, 6:892–902.PubMedCrossRef 40. Barreiro V, Haggard-Ljungquist E: Attachment sites for bacteriophage P2 on the Escherichia coli chromosome: DNA sequences, localization on the physical map, and detection of a P2-like remnant in E. coli K-12 derivatives. J Bacteriol 1992, 174:4086–4093.PubMedCentralPubMed 41. Rocco F, De Gregorio E, Colonna B, Di Nocera PP: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia genomes: a start-up comparison. Int J Med Microbiol 2009, 299:535–546.PubMedCrossRef 42.

While there were no significant differences in β-galactosidase ac

While there were no significant differences in β-galactosidase activity between cells grown at various temperatures (37°C and 42°C) (Figure 2A) or between cells grown in solid and liquid medium (MH broth and MH solidified by agar addition) (data not shown), transcription from each of the analyzed promoters was iron-regulated (Figure

2B). For cells grown in iron-restricted conditions, P dsbA2dsbBastA activity was 10 times lower, P dsbA1 activity was about 30% lower, and P dbadsbI activity was four times higher, compared to cells grown under iron-sufficient/iron-rich conditions. Figure 2 Transcription levels of C. jejuni 81-76 dsb genes Caspase Inhibitor VI purchase (measured by β-galactosidase activity assays) in the wild

type strain (A and B) and fur::cat mutant (C) under different environmental conditions. Each experiment was repeated three times, and each time three independent samples were taken for each strain (giving 9 independent measurements learn more for each strain). Statistical significance was calculated using t-Student test for comparison of independent groups (GraphPad Prism). The wild type strain C. jejuni 480 carrying an empty vector pMW10 was used as a control. Statistical p values: For wild type C. jejuni 480 strain: P dba-dsbI temp. 37°C vs 42°C: p = 0,0001(*). P dsbA2-dsbB-astA temp. 37°C vs 42°C: p = 0,2020. P dsbA1 temp. 37°C vs 42°C: p = 0,1031. P dba-dsbI MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,0576. P dba-dsbI MH-Fe vs MH: p < 0,0001(*). P dsbA1-dsbB-astA MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,0007(*). P dsbA1-dsbB-astA MH-Fe vs MH: p < 0,0001(*). P dsbA1 MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,2569. P dsbA1 MH-Fe vs MH: p < 0,0001(*). For mutant C. jejuni 480 fur::cat strain: P dba-dsbI

MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,3683. P dba-dsbI MH-Fe vs MH: p = 0,6796. P dsbA1-dsbB-astA MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,3164. P dsbA1-dsbB-astA MH-Fe vs MH: p = 0,0577. P dsbA1 MH+Fe vs MH: p = 0,5228. P dsbA1 MH-Fe vs MH: p = 0,2388. P Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor values of P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant; they are marked with (*). Iron-regulated expression of many Gram-negative bacterial genes is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) [35, 36]. Classically, the Fur protein first binds to its co-repressor Fe2+ , and then binds to the conserved PAK5 DNA sequence (Fur-box) of the regulated promoter, repressing its transcription. However, transcriptomic analyses documented that apo-Fur (without complexed co-repressor) can also influence gene transcription in response to iron concentration [6, 36–38]. We therefore decided to evaluate the regulatory function of the Fur protein on dsb gene expression. For this purpose a C. jejuni 480 fur isogenic mutant was constructed. Then, recombinant plasmids containing dsb promoter-lacZ fussions (pUWM803, pUWM864 and pUWM827) were introduced into the C. jejuni 480 fur::cat mutant by electroporation.

Table 2 Absolute and relative (%) prevalences of work-related dim

Table 2 Absolute and relative (%) prevalences of work-related diminished psychological requirements   Total Sleepiness Work-related fatigue Depression PU-H71 mouse Post-traumatic stress disorder Anxiety N % N % N % N % N % N % Men 35 15 0 0 4 2 16 7 8 3 19 8 Women 9 20 1 2 1 2 4 9 3 7 5 11 Volunteer

19 15 0 0 2 2 7 5 4 3 13 10 Professional 25 17 1 1 3 2 13 9 7 5 11 8 <36 years 18 16 1 1 1 1 9 8 5 4 11 10 36–45 years 17 16 0 0 2 2 9 8 2 2 10 9 >45 years 9 17 0 0 2 4 2 4 4 7 3 6 Table 3 Absolute and relative (%) prevalences of work-related diminished physical requirements   Total Test I Test II Airway N % N % N % N % Men 31 14 30 14 22 10 1 1 Women 37 82 Selleck ARN-509 37 82 27 60 0 0 Volunteer 41 32 41 32 30 23 0 0 Professional 27 19 26 19 19 14 1 1 <36 years 34 30 34 30 25 22 0 0 36–45 years 23 23 23 23 15 15 0 0 >45 years 11 21 10 19 9 17 1

2 Table 4 Absolute and relative (%) prevalences of work-related diminished sense-related requirements   Total Vision 5.0 m Vision 0.6 m Vision 0.4 m Colour vision Hearing Skin N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Men 58 25 11 5 20 9 26 11 14 6 7 3 2 1 Women 7 15 2 4 3 7 6 13 0 0 0 0 1 2 Volunteer 35 27 9 7 14 11 18 14 8 6 2 2 1 1 Professional 30 21 4 3 9 6 14 10 6 4 5 3 2 1 <36 years 16 14 7 6 7 6 4 4 5 4 0 0 1 1 36–45 years 20 19 4 4 7 Amine dehydrogenase 7 10 9 3 3 4 4 1 1 >45 years 29 54 2 4 9 17 18 34 6 11 3 6 1 2 Table 5 Absolute and relative (%) prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors   Total BMI Waist circumference Systolic BP Diastolic BP Smoking Diabetes N % N % N % N % N % N % N % Men 179 77 142 61 34 15 61 26 38 16 51 22 2 1 Women 22 48 10 22 8 17 3 7 2 4 11 24 2 4 Volunteer 86 66 64 49 25 19 30 23 13 10 22 17 2 2 Professional 115 78 88 60 17 12 34 23 27 18 40 27 2 1 <36 years 75 65 48 41 12 10 24 21 9 8 29 25 4 3 36–45 years 78 72 63 58 16 15 19 18 14 13 23 21 0 0 >45 years

48 89 41 76 14 26 21 39 17 32 10 19 0 0 With respect to the diminished psychological requirements (Table 2), a prevalence for depression of 8% was found in the middle-aged and youngest category, whereas a lower prevalence (4%) was found in the oldest fire fighters. For anxiety, a prevalence of 10, 9 and 6% was found for the youngest, middle-aged and oldest fire fighters, respectively. In men fire fighters, post-traumatic stress disorder occurred with a frequency of 3%, whereas the prevalence in women was Veliparib purchase higher (7%); lower prevalences of PTSD were found in the middle-aged (2%) as compared to the oldest (7%) fire fighters. In case of diminished physical health requirements, women fire fighters had a higher prevalence (test I 82%; test II 60%) than men fire fighters (test I 14%; test II 10%).

Milas L, Hunter NR, Kurdoglu B, Mason KA, Meyn RE, Stephens LC, P

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and study of aneugenic pathway in CHO-K1 cells. Mutat Res 2005,578(1–2):53–63.PubMed 65. Chen H, Rupa DS, Tomar R, Eastmond DA: Chromosomal loss and breakage in mouse bone marrow and spleen cells exposed to benzene in vivo . Cancer Res 1994,54(13):3533–3539.PubMed Competing interests Chloroambucil The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ELON and GMMS defined the research theme, designed methods and experiments, analyzed the data and critically read, revised and approved the final manuscript. ELON carried out the laboratory experiments.”
“Background Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries [1]. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for around 80% of all lung cancer cases. Somatic events, such as point mutation, genomic rearrangements (e.g.

Clin Chem 1966, 12:58–69 PubMed 25 Carter P: Spectrophotometric

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26. Benzie IFF, Strainb JJ: The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay. Anal Biochem 1996, 239:70–76.PubMedCrossRef 27. Brewer KJ, Murphy JWR, Petersen JD: Synthesis and characterization of monometallic and bimetallic mixed-ligand complexes of iron(II) containing 2,2′-bipyrimidine or 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl) BAY 11-7082 in vitro pyrazine. Inorg Chem 1987, 26:3376–3379.CrossRef 28. Van Kampen EJ, learn more Zijlstra WG: Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives. Adv Clin Chem 1965, 8:141–187.PubMedCrossRef 29. Van Kampen EJ, Zijlstra WG: Spectrophotometry of hemoglobin and hemoglobin derivatives. Adv Clin Chem 1983, 23:199–257.PubMedCrossRef 30. Trivedi RC, Rebar L, Berta E, Stong L: New enzymatic method for serum uric acid at 500 nm. Clin Chem 1978, 24:1908–1111.PubMed 31. Khoschsorur GA, Winklhofer-Roob BM, Rabl H, Auer T, Peng Z, Schaur RJ: Evaluation of a sensitive HPLC method for the determination of malondialdehyde, and application

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2009, H Voglmayr (WU 29539) Czech Republic, Bohemian Switzerlan

2009, H. Voglmayr (WU 29539). Czech Republic, Bohemian Switzerland, Mezní Louka, Kozí Hrbet/Ponova Louka, MTB 5151/2, 50°52′58″ N, 14°18′49″ E, elev. 250 m, on corticated branch of Picea abies 11 cm thick lying on the ground, on bark, infected by a hyphomycete, soc. Trichoderma viride, 19 Sep. 2003, J. Holec & W. Jaklitsch, W.J. 2398 (WU 29207, culture C.P.K. 961). selleck kinase inhibitor Netherlands, Putten, in Drie-Continentenbos of the arboretum Landgoed Schovenhorst,

elev. 0 m, on and around thick old stump of Pseudotsuga menziesii 1 m thick, on bark, soil and plants, 19 Nov. 2006, H. Voglmayr, W.J. 3046 (WU 29212). United Kingdom, Devon, Bovey Tracey, Great Plantation, SX8275, 50°35′00″ N, 03°41′00″ W, elev. 60 m, on soil and forest litter, 5 Sep. 2004, P. Roberts, (WU 29208, culture C.P.K. 1909). Notes: Overton et al. (2006a) clarified the complex nomenclature of this widespread selleck compound species. They also pointed out that Hypocrea lactea sensu Doi (1972) is probably a different taxon in Japan. Hypocrea citrina differs from other species forming effuse stromata by growth on soil and forest debris. It forms the largest stromata known in Hypocrea. H. sulphurea differs

e.g. by distinctly brighter stroma colour, occurrence on Exidia on branches, larger ascospores, lack of hairs on the stroma surface and lack of chlamydospores in culture. Hypocrea pulvinata differs from H. citrina by its occurrence on polypores, a tendency to form determinate pulvinate stromata, inhomogeneously distributed pigment and verrucose hairs on the stroma surface, lanceolate ostiolar cells, and slightly smaller, more or less monomorphic ascospores. H. auranteffusa, H. margaretensis, AZD0530 concentration H. luteffusa, and H. rodmanii differ e.g. by minute cortical cells and green-conidial anamorphs. The moniliform surface hyphae on PDA around the plug seem to be characteristic for H. citrina; in addition all fresh isolates of H. citrina formed a yellow to orange pigment on PDA, particularly at 30°C. This ability may be lost in older strains, as the

CBS strain studied by Overton et al. (2006a) did not form a distinct pigment. Hypocrea decipiens Jaklitsch, K. Põldmaa & Samuels, Mycologia 100: 981 (2008a). Fig. 58 Fig. 58 H. decipiens (holotype BPI 747356). (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate a–d, f. Dry stromata (f. spot treated with KOH). e. Pyrenomycete associated with stromata. g. Cortical tissue. h, i. Asci with ascospores (i. in cotton blue/lactic acid). j. Subperithecial tissue in section. Scale bars a = 3 mm, b, c = 0.3 mm, d–f = 0.5 mm, g, j = 10 μm, h, i = 5 μm = ‘Hypocrea farinosa Berk. & Broome’ sensu Overton et al. Stud. Mycol. 56: 59 (2006). [non Hypocrea farinosa Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 2, 7: 186 (1851).] Anamorph: Trichoderma sp., acremonium/verticillium-like. For descriptions and illustrations see Overton et al. (2006b) under Hypocrea farinosa. A short redescription of stromata based on a re-examination of the holotype is given here. Stromata when dry 5–43 × 2–17 mm, 0.1–0.

Phys Rev Lett 2004,93(3):036404–036408 CrossRef 23 Greenham NC,

Phys Rev Lett 2004,93(3):036404–036408.CrossRef 23. Greenham NC, Peng X, Alivisatos AP: Charge separation and transport in conjugated-polymer/semiconductor-nanocrystal composites studied by photoluminescence

quenching and photoconductivity. Phys Rev B 1996,54(24):17628–17637.CrossRef 24. Hal PA, Christiaans MPT, Wienk MM, Kroon JM, Janssen RAJ: Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO 2 . J Phys SNS-032 in vitro Chem B 1999,103(21):4352–4359.CrossRef 25. Coakley KM, Liu Y, McGehee MD, Frindell KM, Stucky GD: Infiltrating semiconducting polymers into self-assembled mesoporous titania films for photovoltaic applications. Adv Funct Mater 2003,13(4):301–305.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions YZ designed and carried out the experiments and wrote the paper. HL, XL, LG, and YL participated in the experiments. JS, ZY, and JW participated in the design and the discussion of this study. NX conceived and designed the experiments and revised the paper. All authors read and approved

the final manuscript.”
“Background Immobilization of microspheres and nanoparticles (NPs) onto the surface of organic polymers provides fascinating Selleckchem SU5416 opportunities for the design of smart heterostructures [1]. In addition to size, shape, and size uniformity, control of dispersion of NPs is a key parameter to minimize the loss of properties Obeticholic Acid related to the nanosize regime [2]. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs or nanosilver) have attracted increasing interest due to

their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties compared to their macroscaled counterparts [3]. AgNPs have distinctive physicochemical properties, including a high electrical and thermal conductivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and nonlinear optical behavior [4]. These properties make them of potential value in inks, microelectronics, and medical imaging [5]. Besides, AgNPs exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal and fungicidal activity [6] that has made them extremely popular in a diverse range of consumer products, including plastics, soaps, pastes, food, and textiles, increasing their market value [7]. To date, Lonafarnib mouse nanosilver technologies have appeared in a variety of manufacturing processes and end products. Nanosilver can be used in a liquid form, such as a colloid (coating and spray) or contained within a shampoo (liquid), and can also appear embedded in a solid such as a polymer master batch or be suspended in a bar of soap (solid). Nanosilver can also be either utilized in the textile industry by incorporating it into the fiber (spun) or employed in filtration membranes of water purification systems. In many of these applications, the technological idea is to store silver ions and incorporate a time-release mechanism.

The

The overexpression transformant of D. hansenii had much higher AHP expression levels than its wild type counterpart when grown under 3.5 M NaCl and in the presence of the inducer methanol (Fig. 7A). Without any salt the overexpression trasnsformant showed a comparable growth to that of the wild type strain with or without the presence of methanol in the culture media (Fig. 8). Growth of both the wild type strain and the overexpression transformant was inhibited by 3.5 M NaCl (Fig. 8B). However, only the overexpression transformant

showed enhanced growth in the presence of the inducer methanol. Thus, overexpression and suppression of DhAHP reduce the salt tolerance of D. hansenii, respectively. The small enhancements in growth in the overexpression transformant under high salt, as compared to the wild type RAD001 in vitro strain, is expected as expression of endogenous NADPH-oxidase inhibitor DhAHP can be largely induced by salt in this halophilic organism (Fig. 5). Figure 7 Relative levels of DhAHP transcript of three yeasts and their DhAHP overexpression transformants. Cells of D. hansenii

(A), S. cerevisiae (B) and P. methanolica (C) were grown in media containing 3.5, 2.0 and 2.5 M NaCl, respectively, in the presence or absence of methanol for 72 min, and their DhAHP transcripts determined by real-time RT-PCR. For each species, the level for the wild type strain grown in media without methanol was taken as 1. Since the wild type strains of S.c. and P.m do not contain DhAHP their DhAHP transcript Unoprostone levels were low while their overexpression SGC-CBP30 purchase transformants showed high levels of expression relatively. Data presented were means +/- S.D. from 3–4 replicates of measurement. Figure 8 Growth of D. hansenii and its DhAHP overexpression transformant as affected by salt. Cells were cultured in YM11 media with or without

3.5 M NaCl and in the presence or absence of methanol for 5 days. W-M: wild type strain, without methanol, W+M: wild type strain, with 0.5% methanol, T-M: transformant, without methanol, T+M: transformant with 0.5% methanol. Data presented were means +/- S.D. from 3–4 replicates of measurement. Overexpression of DhAHP in S. cerevisiae and P. methanolica The function of DhAHP was further tested by overexpression of the gene in the two salt-sensitive yeasts S. cerevisiae and P. methanolica. As expected, the levels of DhAHP transcript in the wild type strains of the two species were very low even under high salt conditions, but its expression levels in the overexpression transformants increased drastically, especially in the presence of the inducer methanol (Figs. 7B, 7C). The salt tolerance of the overexpression transformants of the two yeasts was evaluated by culture in YPD medium containing 2.0 M NaCl for S. cerevisiae (Fig. 9b) and in YPAD medium containing 2.5 M NaCl for P. methanolica, relative to those of their wild type counterparts (Fig. 10b).