Methods: T-cell responses against HHV-8 lytic and latent antigens

Methods: T-cell responses against HHV-8 lytic and latent antigens

were analyzed by ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) and HHV-8 viral load was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in sequential peripheral blood samples from a 55-year-old woman who developed skin/mucosal and visceral KS, while receiving treatment with cyclosporine, methotrexate, and methylprednisolone for undifferentiated arthritis.

Results: KS may result from HHV-8 infection in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for rheumatic diseases and this is the first case of IKS occurring in undifferentiated arthritis. A role for immune surveillance in the pathogenesis Copanlisib of IKS is supported by the observation of disease regression following discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy. In a 4-year follow-up, we showed that variations of the virus-specific immune responses but not of the viral load correlated well with the disease course, characterized by 2 remission and subsequent relapse phases, following TH-302 molecular weight changes of immunosuppressive therapy.

Conclusions: We have provided evidence of a clear-cut correlation between changes in immunologic markers of HHV-8 infection and the disease course of this viral associated tumor, concomitant with variations of immunosuppressive

treatment. Thus, ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospot for HHV-8-specific T-cell responses represents a new tool for the clinical management of rheumatic patients with IKS. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:170-175″


from mandibular symphysis and ramus are often used for bone reconstruction. Based on this, we hypothesized that these sites could be useful cell sources for bone tissue engineering approaches. Thus, our study aimed at evaluating the proliferation see more and osteoblast phenotype development of cells derived from mandibular symphysis and ramus.

Materials and Methods

Cells were isolated from bone fragments of four patients by enzymatic digestion and cultured under osteogenic condition for up to 17days. Cultures were assayed for cell proliferation, gene expression of key bone markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5), SATB homeobox 2 (SATB2), Osterix (OSX), family with sequence similarity 20, member C (FAM20C), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA or t-test for independent samples when appropriate.


Cells derived from ramus displayed lower proliferative activity and higher gene expression of Runx2, DLX5, SATB2, OSX, FAM20C, BSP, OPN and OC, ALP protein expression and activity and extracellular matrix mineralization compared with symphysis-derived cells.

No reduction in the compression modulus resulting from fatigue da

No reduction in the compression modulus resulting from fatigue damage was evident. Poroelastic properties varied nonmonotonously with structural characteristics. Seven types of the hydrogels were found to fit cartilage in their water content, modulus, and poroelastic properties. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci

112: 390-401, 2009″
“We report the success in fabricating clamped, “”island,”" and freestanding 10 mu m thick piezoelectric films using aerosol deposition. The deposition was conducted at room temperature by impinging the piezoelectric particles flowing through the nozzle onto platinized silicon (Pt/Ti/SiO(2)/Si) learn more substrate and crystallization was conducted by annealing at 700 degrees C. Freestanding films were synthesized by increasing the cooling rate from annealing temperature to room

temperature which resulted in large internal stress between the substrate and film interface. Dielectric and ferroelectric characterizations showed enhanced ferroelectric performance of freestanding films as compared to continuous or clamped film which was associated to increased domain this website contribution due to decrease in degree of clamping as further confirmed by piezoforce microscopy. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3181058]“
“Background The methadone protocol placed responsibility on general practitioners (GPs) for the methadone treatment of stabilised drug-addicted patients. The protocol emphasised

a medico-pharmacological model with minor reference to psychotherapeutic treatment.

Aim This qualitative study investigated how primary care GPs in Ireland use psychotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of methadone patients.

Method A grounded theory methodology was used.

Findings There is a wide variation in the beliefs and knowledge of methadone-prescribing GPs regarding the efficacy of find protocol psychotherapeutic interventions for patients on methadone maintenance. GPs do not formally integrate psychotherapeutic interventions into methadone patient treatment. Accessing psychotherapeutic services raises concerns for GPs in terms of availability, location and quality. Primary care GPs who offer methadone maintenance view opiate abuse as a health issue similar to other such issues within their community. They take a holistic view of their methadone patient and, without formal guidelines, develop individual approaches to the use of psychotherapeutic interventions. The absence of a framework for the use of psychotherapeutic interventions in primary care methadone treatment in Ireland militates against the development of a basis for improving practice.

Both brain levels of A beta and A beta-related morphological defi

Both brain levels of A beta and A beta-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. Conclusions: These results suggest a role for microglia in A beta-related

functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of A beta pathology. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objectives: Postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is usually Sapitinib supplier asymptomatic but can result in a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE). To assess the ability of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound apparatus to detect venous emboli in patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing TKA were examined CAL-101 solubility dmso postoperatively by using compression

ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography, and TCD ultrasonography that detected high-intensity transient signals (HITS) in femoral veins. An original scoring system based on both the number of HITS and the locations of DVT was tested for its accuracy in predicting PE development.

Results: Twenty-three of the 48 patients had DVT postoperatively, and 8 had an asymptomatic PE. The sensitivity and specificity of the HITS assessment alone in identifying PE development were 75% and 92.5%, respectively. The scoring system, however, had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85% and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.96.

Conclusions: Application of a scoring system based on the detection of both DVT and HITS may be an effective and efficient method of screening for PE after knee arthroplasty. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: We performed

this study to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the FAST Dressing in treating a grade V liver injury in noncoagulopathic swine.

Methods: Sixteen female splenectomized, noncoagulopathic swine underwent reproducible grade V liver injuries. The animals were blindly randomized VX-680 ic50 to two treatment groups: (1) FAST Dressing (n = 8) or (2) IgG placebo dressing (n = 8). After 30 seconds of uncontrolled hemorrhage, dressings and manual compression were applied at 4-minute intervals. The number of dressings used, time to hemostasis, total blood loss, mean arterial pressure, blood chemistry, and total resuscitation fluid volume were monitored for 2 hours after injury.

Results: The mean total blood loss was 412.5 mL (SD 201.3) for the FAST Dressing group compared with 2296.6 mL (SD 1076.0) in the placebo group (p < 0.001).

Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinestera

Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow

the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about Epacadostat the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. (Am Pam Physician. 2011;83 (12):1403-1412. Copyright (c) 2011 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Biochars have received increasing attention because of their potential environmental applications such

as soil amending and atmospheric C sequestration. In this study, biochar was produced from waste rubber-wood-sawdust. The produced biochars were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pyrolysis temperature was shown to have a strong Saracatinib influence on both thermal and chemical characteristic of biochar samples. The experimental data shows that the biochar samples can absorb around 5% water by mass (hydrophilic) at lower NSC23766 cost temperatures (<550 degrees C), and that lignin is not converted into a hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) matrix. At higher temperatures (>650 degrees C), biochar samples were thermally stable and became hydrophobic due to the presence of aromatic compounds. Carbon content (over 85%) increased with increasing temperature, and showed an inverse effect to the elemental ratios of H/C and O/C. The very low H/C and O/C ratios obtained for the biochar indicated that carbon in this material is

predominantly unsaturated. BET results showed that the sawdust derived biochars have surface areas between 10 and 200 m(2) g(-1) and FTIR indicated an aromatic functional group about 866 cm(-1) in most of the samples. The rate of CO2 adsorption on sawdust derived biochar generally increased with increasing temperature from 450 to 650 degrees C but then decreased with increase in the production temperature. Derived biochar represents a potential alternative adsorbent for C sequestration. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), formerly known as congenital dislocation of the hip, comprises a spectrum of abnormalities, including abnormal acetabular shape (dysplasia) and malposition of the femoral head during embryonic, fetal and infantile growth periods.

Moreover, we describe the procedure to be followed for colon perf

Moreover, we describe the procedure to be followed for colon perforation in children.”
“Low back pain (LBP) is a common health condition that is often associated with disability, psychological distress and work loss. Worldwide, billions of dollars are expended each year trying to manage LBP, often with limited success. Recently, some researchers have reported

that LBP patients also report sleep disturbance as a result of their LBP. However, as most of this evidence was obtained from highly selected groups of patients or from studies with small samples, high quality data on prevalence of sleep disturbance for patients with LBP are lacking. It is also unclear whether sleep disturbance is more likely to be reported by patients with recent-onset LBP than by patients HDAC inhibitor BLZ945 with persistent LBP. Finally, it is not known whether high pain intensity, the most relevant condition-specific variable, is associated with higher rates of reported sleep disturbance. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of reported sleep disturbance in patients with LBP. In addition, we aimed to determine whether sleep disturbance was associated with the duration of back pain symptoms and whether pain intensity was associated with reported sleep disturbance. Data from 1,941 patients obtained from 13 studies conducted by the authors or their colleagues

between 2001 and 2009 were used to determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance.

Logistic regression analyses explored associations between sleep disturbance, the duration of low back symptoms and pain intensity. The estimated prevalence of sleep disturbance was 58.7% (95% CI 56.4-60.7%). Sleep disturbance was found to be dependent on pain intensity, where each increase by one point on a ten-point visual analogue scale (VAS) was associated with a 10% increase in the likelihood of reporting sleep disturbance. Our findings NVP-LDE225 supplier indicate that sleep disturbance is common in patients with LBP. In addition, we found that the intensity of back pain was only weakly associated with sleep disturbance, suggesting that other factors contribute to sleep problems for LBP patients.”
“Asymmetric syntheses were performed of neomenthanesulfinamide in the yield of 60% and de 74%, of neomenthanesulfinaldimines and N-substituted neomenthanesulfinamides in 22-80 and 40-90% yields respectively.”
“Background and Purpose: An integral component of many urologic reconstructive surgical procedures is the positioning of a Double-J stent to span the anastomosis. Some surgeons prefer to place a retrograde stent during cystoscopy, either during or after the reconstruction. In this communication, we describe our straightforward and effective approach of performing this critical step intracorporeally using robotic assistance in a variety of upper tract urologic reconstructive procedures.

If the body surface exceeds 2 5 m(2), commercially available devi

If the body surface exceeds 2.5 m(2), commercially available devices may not allow adequate oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass. To address this, find more a hollow-fiber oxygenator with an enlarged contact surface of 1.81 m(2) was tested. In an experimental set-up, six calves of mean weight 85.4 +/- 3 kg were connected to cardiopulmonary bypass. They were randomly assigned to a standard oxygenator (n=3; ADMIRAL, Euroset, Medola, Italy) with a surface of 1.35 m(2) or to an enlarged surface oxygenator (n=3; AMG, Euroset). Blood samples were taken before bypass, after 10 min on bypass, and after 1, 2, 5 and 6 h of perfusion. Analysis of variance was used for repeated measurements. The mean flow rate was 6.5 l/min

for 6 h. The total oxygen transfer at 6 h was significantly higher in the high-surface group (P<0.05). Blood trauma, evaluated by plasma hemoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase levels, did not detect any significant hemolysis. Thrombocytes and white blood cell count profiles showed no significant differences between the two groups at 6 h of perfusion

(P=0.06 and 0.80, respectively). At the end of testing, no clot deposition was found in DNA-PK inhibitor the oxygenator, and there was no evidence of peripheral emboli. The results suggest that the new oxygenator allows very good gas transfer and may be used for patients with a large body surface area. (C) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“We have constructed a reaction network

model of Bacillus subtilis. The model was analyzed using a pathway analysis tool called elementary mode analysis (EMA). The analysis tool was used to study the network capabilities and the possible effects of altered culturing conditions on the production of a fibrinolytic enzyme, nattokinase (NK) by B. subtilis. Based on all existing metabolic pathways, the maximum theoretical yield for NK synthesis in B. subtilis BLZ945 research buy under different substrates and oxygen availability was predicted and the optimal culturing condition for NK production was identified. To confirm model predictions, experiments were conducted by testing these culture conditions for their influence on NK activity. The optimal culturing conditions were then applied to batch fermentation, resulting in high NK activity. The EMA approach was also applied for engineering B. subtilis metabolism towards the most efficient pathway for NK synthesis by identifying target genes for deletion and overexpression that enable the cell to produce NK at the maximum theoretical yield. The consistency between experiments and model predictions proves the feasibility of EMA being used to rationally design culture conditions and genetic manipulations for the efficient production of desired products.”
“Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma variant that is most frequently observed in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.

Asian Journal of Andrology (2011) 13, 254-265; doi:10 1038/aja 20

Asian Journal of Andrology (2011) 13, 254-265; doi:10.1038/aja.2010.99; published online 20 December 2010″
“Bituminaria bituminosa (L) C.H. Stirton (Fabaceae) accumulates high concentrations of the furanocoumarins (FCs) angelicin and psoralen, which

protect against infection and herbivory. The effects on FC accumulation of the exposure of two populations of B. bituminosa to abiotic stress (cold, heat and drought) under field conditions were determined, as well as the effect of temperature under controlled conditions, in hydroponic culture. In field conditions, psoralen and angelicin levels in the leaf dry matter were 400-6000 and 1500-11,000 Dibutyryl-cAMP concentration mu g g(-1), respectively. There were significant effects of population on the psoralen concentration and psoralen:angelicin ratio. In hydroponic culture, exposure to a diurnal temperature of 33 degrees C increased FC levels in population Calnegre but not in Llano del Beal, compared with plants grown at 22 degrees C; however, high summer temperatures in the field (>30 degrees C) did not coincide with the highest leaf FC levels, since the plants accumulated FCs preferentially in the fruits. Hence, leaf FC levels were higher in winter. Irrigation, to alleviate water stress in the semi-arid conditions, increased the fruit psoralen

concentration but produced only minor decreases in leaf FC levels. There was a significant, positive correlation (P < 0.001) between GSK1904529A research buy the FC and nitrogen concentrations in the plant organs analysed (both increased in the order: fruits > growing leaves > mature leaves), reflecting their respective

contributions to plant fitness. The genetically- and developmentally-regulated accumulation of FCs by B. bituminosa is altered by short-term variations in environmental conditions, particularly temperature. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson selleck inhibitor SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Hot-electron transport theory of standard semiconductor layered structures predicts the occurrence of negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with inter-valley electron transfer, negative effective mass, and real-space transfer. An analysis of the growth of quantized space-charge waves in single and double heterostructures in which no real-space transfer occurs is presented. It is shown that, in contrast to the situation in bulk material, growth is a complicated function of wavevector because of quantization effects. As a consequence, growth is limited by quantization effects and diffusion to small wave-vectors. To illustrate the effect of quantization clearly, the analysis is limited to growth within the lowest sub-band. In spite of quantization differences, a quantitative comparison can be made by a simple rescaling. Growth is shown to be severely limited to small wave-vectors and its rate turns out to be independent of the details of quantization, being that for extreme confinement.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Background: To

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Total ankle arthroplasty has evolved over the past decade, and newer three-component implants have demonstrated favorable clinical results and improved survivorship. The present study analyzed the clinical and radiographic results of the first 240 total ankle arthroplasties performed by the authors with one of these new three-component prostheses.

Methods: Two hundred and forty consecutive primary total ankle arthroplasties were performed in 233 patients (115 women and 118 men; mean age, 61.6 years) between November 2003 and October

2007 with the Mobility prosthesis. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, reoperations, and failures were recorded. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score and a visual analog scale score assessment of pain were determined at each follow-up visit. Range of ankle motion was measured on functional radiographs, and the radiographs click here were studied to assess component positioning, radiolucencies, new bone formation, and periprosthetic bone cysts.

Results: Two hundred and thirty-three of the arthroplasties were available for follow-up at least one year after surgery. The mean duration of follow-up was 32.8 +/- 15.3 months. There were ten intraoperative complications (4.2%) and twenty postoperative complications PHA-848125 molecular weight (8.6%). A reoperation

was necessary in eighteen ankles (7.7%). Five arthroplasties (2.1%) failed at a mean of twenty-seven months after surgery. The mean American Orthopaedic

Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score improved from 48.2 to 84.1 points (p < 0.001). The mean pain level decreased from 7.7 to 1.7 points (p < 0.001). The mean total range of ankle motion improved from 19.8 degrees to 21.9 degrees (p < 0.001). The tibial component had a mean of 2.1 degrees of varus and a mean posterior slope of 6.0 degrees relative to the tibial axis. The prevalence of nonprogressive radiolucency Bucladesine clinical trial ranged from 1.8% to 37.3% in the ten zones surrounding the tibial component, and from 0 to 2.2% in the three zones surrounding the talar component.

Conclusions: The short-term clinical and radiographic results after Mobility total ankle arthroplasty are encouraging and are at least comparable with those associated with other modern three-component implants. The minimum duration of follow-up of one year is short, and studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.”
“Purpose of reviewThis article reviews recent developments in the selection of the lung donor that aim to increase donor organ use. The scarcity of suitable donor organs continues to limit lung transplantation resulting in long waiting times and significant mortality for those patients awaiting transplantation.Recent findingsStrategies to expand the donor pool can substantially lift donor lung utilization rates from historically low levels of less than 15% to rates greater than 50% without inordinate risk of short-term or long-term complications.

Controls did not (yet) have diabetes We genotyped ACE (G4656C, w

Controls did not (yet) have diabetes. We genotyped ACE (G4656C, which is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the ACE insertion/deletion

polymorphism), angiotensinogen (M235T), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C).

Results. Among 495 cases of incident diabetes and 2,624 controls, homozygous 1166C carriers of angiotensin II type 1 receptor who used angiotensin II receptor blockers had an increased risk of diabetes compared to 1166A carriers (interaction odds ratio 5.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.8-16.1]). Homozygous ACE GG subjects who used ACE inhibitors >= 1 defined daily dose/day had a higher risk of diabetes compared to Subjects with the ACE C allele (interaction odds ratio 2.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.2-4.5]).

Conclusions. Angiotensin II receptor blockers increase the occurrence of diabetes in homozygous 1166C carriers of angiotensin II type I receptor, but not in 1166A carriers. ACE inhibitors at doses >= 1 defined click here daily dose/day increase the risk of diabetes among homozygous ACE GG carriers, but not in 4656C carriers.”
“A hallmark of MYC-transformed cells is their aberrant response to antimitogenic

signals. Key examples include the inability of MYC-transformed cells to arrest proliferation in response to antimitogenic signals such as TGF-beta or DNA damage and their inability to differentiate into adipocytes in response to hormonal stimuli. Given the plethora of antimitogenic signals to which a tumor cell is exposed, it is likely that the ability to confer resistance to these signals is central to the transforming properties of MYC in vivo. At the same time, the inability of MYC-transformed

5-Fluoracil manufacturer cells to halt cell-cycle progression on stress may establish a dependence on mutations that impair or disable apoptosis. We propose that the interaction of MYC with the zinc finger protein MIZ-1 mediates resistance to antimitogenic signals. In contrast to other interactions of MYC, there is currently little evidence that MIZ-1 associates with MYC in normal, unperturbed cells. The functional interaction of both proteins becomes apparent at oncogenic expression levels of MYC and association with MIZ-1 mediates both oncogenic functions of MYC as well as tumor-suppressive responses to oncogenic levels of MYC.”
“Objective To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey.

Animals studied Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus).

Procedures Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL (R) device.

In this study, by using 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate

In this study, by using 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) and a synthesized side methacryloxy group polysiloxane (MAPS) as modifying materials and bisphenol-A epoxy methacrylate (BEMA) as matrix,

respectively, a innovative UV-curing system, BEMA/HFMA/MAPS composite system was developed. Through UV-cure process, a series of BEMA/HFMA, BEMA/MAPS, and BEMA/HFMA/MAPS cured composite films with different proportions were successfully obtained. It was found that HFMA monomer was helpful for the reduction of the surface energy of the UV-cured composite films and the enhancement of their water resistance property. Without HFMA in BEMA matrix, MAPS could facilitate the improvement of the properties of BEMA/MAPS MK-4827 concentration cured films, and the presence of MAPS in BEMA/HFMA/MAPS system could significantly decrease the surface energy of the cured films to 22.1 mJ/m(2) and improve their thermal stabilities and water resistance properties by measurements, contact angle, TGA, DSC, and water resistance. To the SEM observation, HFMA and MAPS were well distributed in the cured films in favor of their excellent performances. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl SBE-β-CD in vitro Polym Sci 117: 1859-1866, 2010″
“In this study, photoluminescence (PL) under high excitation intensity as a function of crystalline size was systematically investigated

through ZnO nanocrystalline films prepared by spin-coating a colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles obtained using the microemulsion method. Annealing of the films at 723, 633, and 593 K allowed us to

tune the crystalline radius R. PL studies distinguished different regimes of crystalline size according to the ratio of R to the effective Bohr radius a(B)(R/a(B)). For the sample annealed at 723 K (R/a(B)=7.2), the peak of stimulated emission due to the exciton-exciton collisions appeared on the low-energy side of the exciton emission with an increase in excitation intensity. Z-DEVD-FMK A further increase in excitation intensity eventually resulted in the occurrence of an electron-hole plasma (EHP) accompanied by consequent band gap renormalization, which indicates that high excitation intensity provokes the dissociation of excitons. For the sample annealed at 633 K (R/a(B)=4.7), the stimulated emission was observed while the transition to EHP was obscure. For the sample annealed at 593 K (R/a(B)=2.1), only emissions due to the recombination of the electron-hole pair were observed, and stimulated emission did not appear even when the excitation intensity was increased. The transition from free-exciton emission to donor-bound exciton emission was observed in temperature dependence of PL only for the sample with R/a(B)=7.2. The origin of annihilation of the stimulated emission with a size reduction is discussed based on nonradiative Auger recombination. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.