5a, b), whereas low-intensity agroforestry (fine rings) was more similar to primary forest plots than medium and
high-intensity agroforestry. Furthermore, the openland plots were more clustered than all other www.selleckchem.com/products/YM155.html habitat types and especially the bee community in openland strongly differed from all other habitat types. Fig. 4 Additive partitioning of species richness along a land-use intensification gradient with the five habitat types. Black bars showing the alpha-diversity fraction, grey bars the spatial beta-diversity (diversity between replicates) and the white bars the temporal beta-diversity fraction (diversity between phases). Different letters indicate significant differences between diversity levels between each habitat type Fig. 5 Multidimensional scaling of a bee and b plant species see more communities. Points represent the species composition and density of a certain habitat calculated with the Bray-Curtis similarity index (PF primary forest, LIA low-intensity agroforestry, MIA medium-intensity agroforestry, HIA high-intensity agroforestry, OL openland) with four and three replicates, respectively, shown by number of points. Larger distances between the points indicate larger distances in species compositions.
Rings were used to group BIBF 1120 purchase primary forests, agroforestry systems and openland. Fine rings comprise the low-intensity agroforestry plots to visualize the vicinity of species composition to primary forest Discussion Openland plots had highest bee species richness and abundance compared to agroforestry and forest plots, whereas agroforestry management type did not affect bee species richness and abundance. Even though forested habitats are closer to the natural vegetation type (primary rainforest) than un-forested habitats they do not appear to be significant habitats for maintaining high species richness of bees (already shown by Liow et al. 2001; Winfree et al. 2007). We show that managed habitats provided better food supply in the understorey than
natural habitat due to high flower below density (Potts et al. 2006), which was negatively correlated with canopy cover, a relation already found in other tropical forests (Bruna and Ribeiro 2005) and conifer stands (Lindh 2005), resulting in higher bee richness and density. Canopy cover in low-intensity agroforestry systems was very similar to primary forests, but flowering plant density was higher and thus bee richness and abundance were also higher. However, we sampled the herb layer and the understorey of the forested plots, and sampling the canopy, in particular in the primary forest, may change the picture as shown for trap nesting bees and wasps in temperate forests (Sobek et al. 2009). Openland had a significantly higher alpha but not beta-diversity than all other habitat types. Agroforestry systems had a higher spatial beta-diversity compared to primary forests, but not openland.