Ceruloplasmin isoforms profile may be proposed as disease
feature that could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis.”
“The ability to discriminate among similar experiences is a crucial feature of episodic memory. This ability has long been hypothesized to require the hippocampus, and computational models suggest that it is dependent on pattern separation. However, empirical data for the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation have not been available until recently. This review summarizes data from electrophysiological recordings, lesion studies, immediate-early gene imaging, BIIB057 in vitro transgenic mouse models, as well as human functional neuroimaging, that provide convergent evidence for the involvement of particular hippocampal subfields in this key process. We discuss the impact of aging and adult neurogenesis on pattern separation, and also highlight several challenges to linking across species and approaches, and suggest future directions for investigation.”
changes in gene expression have been demonstrated by using several mouse models of Huntington’s disease (HD), which express extreme numbers of CAG repeats. We have recently developed a transgenic rat model of HD carrying a truncated huntingtin fragment with 51 CAG repeats, which is in the range seen in adult HD patients. For further evaluation, we have performed microarray analyses on whole brains of transgenic BMS202 chemical structure (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate rats at 3 and 12 months of age and correlated it with protein expression by Western blot analysis. We found that genes functionally associated with gene expression and behavior were differently regulated already at 3 months of age, whereas at 12 months of age especially genes related to neurological diseases and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction were dysregulated. A detailed analysis of canonical pathways revealed
that at 3 months of age genes in calcium signaling and synaptic long term potentation pathways were altered, while at 12 months of age, additionally, expression level of many genes implicated in Huntington’s disease signaling, were changed.”
“The hippocampus integrates the encoding, storage and recall of memories, binding the spatio-temporal and sensory information that constitutes experience and keeping episodes in their correct context. The rapid and accurate processing of such daunting volumes of continuously changing data relies on dynamically assigning different aspects of mnemonic processing to specialized, interconnected networks corresponding to the anatomical sub-fields of dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1. However, differentially processed information ultimately has to be reintegrated into conjunctive representations, and this is unlikely to be achieved by unidirectional, sequential steps through a DG-CA3-CA1 loop.