The vestibular test battery consisted of

alternating bith

The vestibular test battery consisted of

alternating bithermal caloric testing; computerized sinusoidal vertical axis rotation (at frequencies 0.01-0.64) with infrared videonystagmography; and oculomotor and positional testing including bilateral Dix-Hallpike, head center supine, and 30-degree supine head turns right and tell.\n\nResults: Eight of the 56 subjects had caloric weakness. Selleck AZD7762 Forty-five subjects (80%) had abnormal tilt table test findings. The incidence of coexistent neurocardiogenic and vestibular test abnormalities was 10.7%. There was no significant association between abnormal tilt table test result and caloric weakness (Fisher exact test; P=.64). The degree of compensation seen on vestibule-ocular reflex gain testing did not affect tilt table findings (chi(2); P = .872).\n\nConclusions: There is no difference in the rate of postural orthostatic intolerance in

subjects with evidence of caloric weakness compared with those with normal caloric function. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The optimization of dielectric properties of barium rare earth titanate was carried out by simultaneous substitution of Sm, La and Bi ions. The effects of substitution of Bi on dielectric and structural characteristics of Ba(4)(La(0.3)Sm(0.7))(9.33)Ti(18)O(54) were investigated. The solid solutions, Ba(4)(La((1-y-z))Sm(y)Bi(z))(9.33)Ti(18)O(54) with y = 0.7 and z = 0.0-0.2, Staurosporine mouse synthesized by solid state reaction technique were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The dielectric properties were measured using a network analyzer in the frequency range Selleckchem ERK inhibitor 0.3-3.0 GHz. It has been found that Bi substitution not only increases the dielectric constant but also improves the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency. However the tangent loss increases with increase

in Bi substitution. Among the investigated compositions, Ba(4)(La((1-y-z))Sm(y)Bi(z))(9.33)Ti(18)O(54) dielectric ceramic with y = 0.7 and z = 1.0 has got high dielectric constant (82), low tangent loss (3.3 x 10(-3)) at 3 GHz and near zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (-5 ppm/degrees C). It could be suitable candidate for applications in wireless communication systems. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Background During long-term anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation, temporary interruptions (TIs) of therapy are common, but the relationship between patient outcomes and TIs has not been well studied. We sought to determine reasons for TI, the characteristics of patients undergoing TI, and the relationship between anticoagulant and outcomes among patients with TI.

The development of five new reverse transcription real-time quant

The development of five new reverse transcription real-time quantitative BEZ235 order PCR (RT-qPCR) assays is described, which allow the detection of all known PepMV genotypes. The performance of the assays was evaluated on Peruvian, European tomato, Ch2 and US1 PepMV genotypes and optimised for both two- and one-step RT-qPCR detection formats. One-step RT-qPCR detected PepMV European tomato genotype particles at least two orders of magnitude more sensitively than ELISA. The method detected as little as one naturally infected seed among 5000 uninfected seeds. The genotype-specificity of the

five assays was compared using PepMV isolates representing all of the different genotypes. The following genotype combinations were all discriminated successfully: European tomato-Peruvian, Ch2, and US1. In addition to its application for diagnostic purposes, the genotype-specificity and the quantitative potential of the method, makes it very useful for epidemiological studies or for studies evaluating selleck resistance of plants to virus infection. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy.\n\nFrom August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed

all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover selleck screening library group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure.

Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained.\n\nA total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 total (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy.\n\nBoth transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.”
“Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for studying the functions of plant genes, but only a few VIGS vectors available for woody plants were reported so far. Here we present an effective heterologous VIGS system in woody plants based on tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vectors. We first tested whether the TRV-vector can be directly applied to infect woody plant species, such as Vernicia fordii, Populus tomentosa Carr. and Camellia oleifera.

SMT in immunodeficient states may present with unspecific symptom

SMT in immunodeficient states may present with unspecific symptoms which are mainly related to tumour localisation. In PTSMT, >50% of tumours manifest in the liver/transplant liver, but in general PTSMT, HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can occur

at any site as single or multiple tumours. Multiple tumour manifestations do not define metastatic disease as PTSMT can occur synchronously and/or metachronously. PTSMT can originate from the recipient as well as from the donor. Morphologically, most tumours, in particular PTSMT, lack marked histological atypia or tumour necrosis, while some HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can present as sarcoma-like variants, but histomorphology does not predict clinical aggressiveness or tumourbiological behaviour. In PTSMT, surgery and reduced immunosuppression HDAC inhibitor show comparable overall survival rates, while AZD1152 mouse poor prognosis is mainly associated with intracranial manifestation and

non-resectable tumours. In HIV-SMT and CI-SMT, surgery should be performed. In all 3 tumour types, adverse prognosis is mainly related to comorbidities associated with immunosuppression but not with the extent of histological atypia or tumour size. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Mammalian prions are thought to consist of misfolded aggregates (protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein [PrPres]) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) can be induced in animals inoculated with recombinant PrP (rPrP) amyloid fibrils lacking mammalian posttranslational modifications, but this induction is inefficient in hamsters or transgenic mice overexpressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored PrPC. Here we show that TSE can be initiated by inoculation of misfolded rPrP into mice that express wild-type (wt) levels of PrPC Angiogenesis inhibitor and that synthetic prion strain propagation

and selection can be affected by GPI anchoring of the host’s PrPC. To create prions de novo, we fibrillized mouse rPrP in the absence of molecular cofactors, generating fibrils with a PrPres-like protease-resistant banding profile. These fibrils induced the formation of PrPres deposits in transgenic mice coexpressing wt and GPI-anchorless PrPC (wt/GPI(-)) at a combined level comparable to that of PrPC expression in wt mice. Secondary passage into mice expressing wt, GPI(-), or wt plus GPI(-) PrPC induced TSE disease with novel clinical, histopathological, and biochemical phenotypes. Contrary to laboratory-adapted mouse scrapie strains, the synthetic prion agents exhibited a preference for conversion of GPI(-) PrPC and, in one case, caused disease only in GPI(-) mice. Our data show that novel TSE agents can be generated de novo solely from purified mouse rPrP after amplification in mice coexpressing normal levels of wt and anchorless PrPC.

The adaptation of purified HSC at the site of injury was longer a

The adaptation of purified HSC at the site of injury was longer and the stages of wound healing took place later. The results obtained show that in further experiments the

complex procedure of HSC isolation and purification could be shortened and heavy skin injuries could be successfully treated with the help of lin- Selleck GNS-1480 cell population. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“As part of a strategy aimed at improving bioresorbable scaffolds for the engineering of bony tissues, a route to deposit calcium phosphate onto surfaces of poly(dl-lactic acid)-based porous matrices was investigated. Porosity was generated using the NaCl-leaching technique. Calcification was achieved after deposition of phosphatidylserine, SRT2104 a nucleating agent of natural origin, onto pore surfaces, followed by incubation of the phospholipid-coated matrix in a pH 6.5 aqueous medium consisted of 3.5 mmol CaCl2 and 2.6 mmol KH2PO4 for 3 days. Calcified matrices were noncytotoxic according to the ISO10993-5 standard test and exhibited low inflammatory potential. To compare responses of human cells of different types, human osteogenic bone marrow cells from the femoral head, human chondrocytes from femoral cartilage collected after hip surgery, and human vascular endothelial cells isolated from an umbilical cord were allowed to grow in the presence of the calcified matrices in vitro. Articular

chondrocytes adhered to and

PRT062607 research buy grew on the calcified matrices up to colony formation. In contrast, the other two types of cells attached and proliferated for approximately 3 days and then detached. These different cell behaviors are discussed with respect to the nature of the cells and to the release of calcium ions from the coating.”
“During the past decade, more research has focused on firefighters’ multiple exposures via multi-route exposure. Multi-route exposure can alter the kinetics of chemicals; this has brought changes to the recommendations on biomonitoring. In addition, the possibility that the chemicals in smoke have additive and synergistic effects has not been consistently taken into account. In this study, biomonitoring and occupational hygienic measurements were used to determine smoke diving trainers’ exposure to smoke in conventional and modern simulators. Biological action limit values (BALs) for 1-hydroxypyrene, linked with the ratio of pyrene to benzo[a]pyrene, were established for conventional and modern simulator types. The additive and synergistic effects for the main compounds detected in the air during the suppression of a fire were also calculated. According to the biomonitoring results, dermal exposure played a role in exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and it seemed to delay the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-naphthol.

) caused by the ascomycete fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dr

) caused by the ascomycete fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechs.) Drechs. It is particularly important in warm humid parts of the world where maize is cultivated,

such as the southern Atlantic coast area of the United States and parts of India, Africa, and Western Europe. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to SLB disease caused by C. heterostrophus race O were identified in three maize recombinant inbred populations assessed in two environments: Clayton, NC, in the summer and Homestead, FL, in the winter. The three populations were derived from the crosses B73 x CML254, CML254 x B97, and B97 x Ki14. Each of these populations was derived from STA-9090 price a cross between a temperate maize line (B73 or B97) and a tropical maize line (Ki14 or CML254). Quantitative trait loci were identified by separate analysis of each population and by joint connected and disconnected analyses of all the populations. The most significant QTL identified were on chromosomes 3, 8, 9, and 10. Joint analysis led to more precise position estimates than separate analysis in each case. Results are discussed in the context of previous SLB QTL analysis

studies and a recent flowering time QTL study that used the same populations. this website The chromosome 8 and 9 QTL colocalized with previously identified flowering time QTL, which suggested that the perceived effect on SLB resistance at these QTL may have been mediated through an effect on flowering time.”
“In this work, we design and synthesize a malonitrile-functionalized TPE derivative (TPE-DCV), which can react with thiol group through thiol-ene click reaction, leading to the fluorescence change of the system. Combined with the unique AIE property, TPE-DCV can selectively detect glutathione (GSH) but not cysteine

or homocysteine. As the cleavage of GSSG with the aid of glutathione reductase produces GSH, which turns on the fluorescence of TPE-DCV, the ensemble of TPE-DCV and GSSG can thus serve as a label-free sensor for enzymatic activity assay of glutathione reductase. We also apply TPE-DCV for the detection of intracellular GSH in living cells.”
“IMPORTANCE Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with increased risk for child maltreatment and child exposure to selleck screening library traumatic events. Exposure to multiple traumatic events is associated with a wide range of adverse health and social outcomes in children. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of probable maternal depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD and depression with the risk for child maltreatment and parenting stress and with the number of traumatic events to which preschool children are exposed. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational design. We used analysis of variance to determine whether probable maternal psychopathology groups differed on child maltreatment, parenting stress, and children’s exposure to traumatic events.

Quantitative and qualitative differences in total cyanogenic gluc

Quantitative and qualitative differences in total cyanogenic glucoside content were observed across different stages of whole plant and tissue ontogeny, as well as within different tissue types. Seedlings of E. camphora produce only the cyanogenic monoglucoside prunasin, and genetically based variation Sapitinib mouse was observed in the age at which seedlings initiate prunasin biosynthesis. Once initiated, total cyanogenic glucoside concentration increased throughout plant ontogeny with cyanogenic diglucoside production initiated in saplings and reaching a maximum in flower buds of adult trees. The role of multiple cyanogenic glucosides

in E. camphora is unknown, but may include enhanced plant defense and/or a primary role in nitrogen storage and transport. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

phenomenon occurs when surfaces exposed to thermal radiation Selleckchem BTSA1 reach the ignition temperature, and the fire rapidly spreads in enclosed area. Flashover training (FOT) performed by firefighters is a simulation of flashover phenomenon under controlled conditions. The study aimed to test thermal and physical strain in male firefighters and instructors attending FOT and its influence on DNA damage, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). DNA damage markers were analyzed in 51 attendees and 7 instructors, and EBC pH and FeNO in 40 respiratory healthy non-smoking subjects (34 attendees and 6 instructors). The average body temperature and pulse increase was 1.1 degrees C and 30 beats per minute, respectively. A prominent increase in the alkali-labile sites’ level has been observed in instructors’ peripheral leukocytes compared to first-time attendees (tail length p=0.050, % of DNA in tail p=0.005). FOT was related only to physiological FVC and FEV1 increase (by 4% and 2.7% on average), and

FeNO dropped after the exercise by 2 ppb in comparison with basal values (P=0.034). EBC pH did not change during FOT, but FeNO was inversely Navitoclax cell line correlated to EBC pH after the exercise (Spearman’s rho= -0.66, P=0.013). With respect to the thermal and physical strain, FOT is considered to be a safe training procedure for healthy firefighters. The increase rate in primary DNA damage found in the instructors’ peripheral leukocytes requires further examination in a larger sample size. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively.

0 %) were the organ systems most frequently involved by the disea

0 %) were the organ systems most frequently involved by the disease at the baseline. The BVAS for new/worse disease decreased immediately after induction therapy, while improvement of the BVAS for persistent disease after therapy differed among the organ systems.\n\nConclusions. BVAS was demonstrated to be a valuable guide for selection of the optimal treatment. Thus, BVAS was also found to be a useful

tool in Japanese patients for the assessment of disease activity and degree of organ damage in patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis.”
“A novel technique of detecting the peak frequency of an ultrasonic reflection spectrum was proposed, with the aim of enhancing the sensitivity and accuracy of estimating the aggregation size of red blood cells (RBCs). Peak frequencies for stagnant and running suspensions prepared with monodisperse particles of graphite and acryl that were BIX 01294 order used to mimic aggregated RBCs were acquired. As a result, the relationships between particle diameter and peak frequency, which were independent of the material of the particles and flow rate, were obtained. For bidisperse samples, i.e., mixtures of two different sizes of particle samples, quantitative relationships corresponding to changes in the mixing ratio were observed. (C) 2013 The Japan Society learn more of Applied

“Background. Comorbidity is an important prognostic factor for survival in other cancers, but the importance in soft tissue sarcoma has not yet been clarified. The aims SCH 900776 Cell Cycle inhibitor of this study were to examine the prevalence of comorbidity in soft tissue sarcoma patients, and estimate the impact of comorbidity on overall and disease-specific mortality. Material and methods. Overall,

1210 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities or trunk wall were identified through the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry, a validated population-based database. Information on comorbidity was obtained through the National Patient Registry, and a Charlson’s Comorbidity score was calculated for each patient. The prevalence of comorbidity was assessed overall, as well as according to age and year of diagnosis. Overall and disease-specific mortality rates according to level of comorbidity were computed. The prognostic value of comorbidity was estimated using crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results. The overall prevalence of comorbidity was 25%. The prevalence increased with increasing age, and patients with comorbidity had a larger proportion of adverse prognostic factors when compared to patients without comorbidity. The five-year disease-specific mortality was 26% (95% CI 24-29) for patients without comorbidity, compared to 33% (95% CI 24-42), 41% (95% CI 32-50), and 44% (95% CI 33-55) for patients with mild, moderate, and severe comorbidity, respectively.

Materials and methods: We report on 19 shoulders treated with

\n\nMaterials and methods: We report on 19 shoulders treated with meniscal allograft glenoid resurfacing and shoulder hemiarthroplasty. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively (mean, 4.25 years) with Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. In addition, we compared the Daporinad research buy outcomes related

to preoperative concentric versus eccentric glenoid wear.\n\nResults: At final follow-up, the mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 28; SST, 8; and VAS, 3.5. Whereas the eccentric wear group (DASH score, 19.4; SST score, 9.1; VAS score, 2.5) exhibited better shoulder function and pain scores compared with the concentric wear group (DASH score, 37.6; SST score, 8.4; VAS score, 4.1), the difference was not statistically significant A-1210477 price (P = .098, P = .647, and P = .198, respectively). There were 6 complications (32%), all resulting in repeat surgery. Three patients underwent total shoulder arthroplasty and one shoulder had revision hemiarthroplasty, whereas

synovectomy was performed in another shoulder. The sixth patient underwent lysis of adhesions and capsular release.\n\nDiscussion: With long-term follow-up, we have observed that biologic resurfacing of the glenoid with meniscal allograft exhibits inconsistent results and high complication rates. Strong consideration should be given to performing total shoulder arthroplasty in patients in whom all conservative treatment options have failed.\n\nLevel of evidence: Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study. (C) 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.”
“A novel approach for no-reference video

quality measurement is proposed in this paper. Firstly, various feature extraction methods are used to AL3818 solubility dmso quantify the quality of videos. Then, a support vector regression model is trained and adopted to predict unseen samples. Six different regression models are compared with the support vector regression model. The experimental results indicate that the combination of different video quality features with a support vector regression model can outperform other methods for no-reference video quality measurement significantly.”
“Preclinical trials indicate that CD34+ cells represent an effective angiogenic stem cell component. Early-phase clinical trials suggest that intramyocardial administration of autologous CD34+ cells may improve functional capacity and symptoms of angina. RENEW is a pivotal phase 3 trial designed to determine the efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized CD34+ stem cells for the treatment for patients with refractory angina and chronic myocardial ischemia.

Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to

Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.”
“In previous experiments elevated but sub-symptomatic applications of Zn (0.1 mM

and 1 mM) caused impairments in growth parameters and photosynthetic performance of Populus x euramericana (Dode) Guinier clone I-214. The aim of this work was to evaluate leaf morphological and anatomical traits in this clone in response to the same Zn concentrations. The results showed that Zn treatments induced variations in leaf dry mass, area, mesophyll thickness, intercellular spaces, stomatal density and size. Stronger modifications, especially concerning stomata characteristics induced by 1 mM Zn, were consistent with physiological impairments while those induced by 0.1 mM Zn suggested a compensatory strategy for maintaining functional integrity.”
“To judiciously use Raoultella planticola Rs-2 PP2 order and develop its biodegradable and controlled-release formulations, Rs-2 was encapsulated with various combinations of sodium alginate (NaAlg) and starch. Sodium alginate, soluble starch, and CaCl2 showed good biocompatibility with Rs-2 for preparing microcapsules. These microcapsules were spherical in shape and their particle size, embedding

rate, swelling ratio of Rs-2 microcapsules and release numbers of viable Rs-2 cells increased with Crenigacestat the increasing of starch and NaAlg concentrations. Meanwhile, the biodegradability of the microcapsules constantly increases when the wt% of starch increased, but decreased when the amount of NaAlg increased. In addition, the release mechanism of microcapsules was consistent with that of the Ritger-Peppas model, which involves the Case II diffusion mechanism. In summary, the desired properties of the microcapsules can be modulated by varying the starch and alginate amounts of capsule materials. This this website process has broad application prospects to meet the needs of agricultural production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The discovery of BMS-605339 (35), a tripeptidic inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme, is described. This compound incorporates a cyclopropylacylsulfonamide

moiety that was designed to improve the potency of carboxylic acid prototypes through the introduction of favorable nonbonding interactions within the S1′ site of the protease. The identification of 35 was enabled through the optimization and balance of critical properties including potency and pharmacokinetics (PK). This was achieved through modulation of the P2* subsite of the inhibitor which identified the isoquinoline ring system as a key template for improving PK properties with further optimization achieved through functionalization. A methoxy moiety at the C6 position of this isoquinoline ring system proved to be optimal with respect to potency and PK, thus providing the clinical compound 35 which demonstrated antiviral activity in HCV-infected patients.

“In irrigated

rice paddies, episodic release of ni

“In irrigated

rice paddies, episodic release of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil to the atmosphere has been observed during the first flood irrigation, but the biogeochemical mechanisms underlying these emissions remain unclear. To elucidate both microbial pathways of N2O production, consumption and emission processes of N2O from soil surfaces, we analyzed isotopomer ratios (bulk nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, delta N-15(bulk) and delta O-18, and intramolecular N-15 site preference, SP) of surface-emitted N2O and N2O in soil gas from paddy fields in Japan at the beginning of irrigation. Results indicate that surface-emitted N2O is produced at shallow depths above the rising groundwater table, and that it is emitted by diffusive transport through Apoptosis inhibitor air-filled soil pores. Immediately after soil surfaces are submerged, N2O accumulates in the soil because of the low diffusivity and high solubility of N2O in water. Isotopomer analysis revealed that high N2O emissions during the flooding process Sapanisertib resulted mainly from N2O production by bacterial denitrification (nitrate reduction). Moreover, as soil submergence progressed, declining soil NO concentration promoted the use of N2O as an electron

acceptor. Thereby, most of the N2O was reduced to N-2. N2O emissions were increased by nitrogen fertilizer application before irrigation. The applied nitrogen fertilizer might enhance N2O production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The smallscale yellowfin, Plagiognathops microlepis is the only one species in the genus Plagiognathops. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the P. microlepis. The complete mitogenome was 16,623 bp in size, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes,

JNK inhibitor and 1 control region. It has the typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate’s mitochondrial genome. The whole base composition was estimated to be 30.60% A, 25.19% T, 27.32% C and 16.89% G with AT bias of 55.79%. The complete mitogenome of P. microlepis provides the basis for preservation of genetic resources and genetic breeding studies on this species.”
“Previous microscopy-based studies in the eastern English Channel have revealed it to be a productive meso-eutrophic coastal ecosystem, characterized by strong repeating patterns in microplankton succession. The present study examines the seasonal structure of the entire protistan community from March 2011 to July 2013, using tag pyrosequencing of the V2-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. A total of 1242 OTUs and 28 high-level taxonomic groups, which included previously undetected taxa in the area, were identified. The detected OTUs were considered according to taxon-specific traits, which included their trophic role, abundance and specialization level.