Health care delay was defined as the time between initial health

Health care delay was defined as the time between initial health care contact and the initiation of anti-tuberculosis medication, and was compared between patients prescribed antibiotics and those not exposed to any antibiotics.


VS-6063 concentration A total of 1544 patients were included. After adjusting for covariates, average health care delay for patients exposed to antibiotics was found to be significantly greater, by a factor of 2.10 (95%CI 1.80-2.44), with a median delay of 41 days in the antibiotic group compared to 14 days in the non-antibiotic group. Sex, age, foreign-born status and socio-economic status were non-significant factors. Health care delay increased with the number of antibiotic courses received, but not with NU7026 DNA Damage inhibitor the type of antibiotic.

CONCLUSIONS: Previous treatment with any antibiotic, and not only a FQ, is associated with a delay in TB diagnosis.”

memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where, and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory (ELM) formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition (OR) tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control, empty open field (CTR-OF), open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj), novel OR task, and ELM task and were killed 1 h after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the RG7420 OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal) discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) in the OR and ELM groups. The

OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and PRh only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-DG co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel OR task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands.”
“Extinction is not always permanent, as indicated by several types of recovery effects, such as the renewal effect, which may occur after a context change and points towards the importance of contextual cues.

After addition of midazolam as internal

After addition of midazolam as internal Ganetespib price standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used as sample preparation, and chromatography involved Agilent SB-C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 5.0 mu m) using 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Detection involved positive ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI), and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantification of target fragment ions m/z 198 for esomeprazole and m/z 326 for midazolam (internal standard, IS). The assay was linear over the range of 10-2000 ng/mL for esomeprazole,

with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL for esomeprazole. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14 % and the accuracies were in the range of 89.2-112.6 % for esomeprazole. This developed method was successfully applied for the determination

of esomeprazole in rabbit plasma for pharmacokinetic study.”
“Continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) is a clinically useful tool in the pediatric setting. This study compared the ability of stroke volume variation (SVV) measured by NICOM with that of respiratory variations in the velocity of aortic blood flow see more (a-(3)Vpeak) and central venous pressure (CVP) to predict of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated children after ventricular septal defect repair. The study investigated 26 mechanically

ventilated children after the completion of surgery. At 30 min after their arrival in an intensive care unit, a colloid solution of 10 ml/kg was administrated for volume expansion. Hemodynamic variables, including CVP, stroke volume, and a-(3)Vpeak in addition to cardiac output and SVV in NICOM were measured before and 10 min after volume expansion. The patients with a stroke volume increase of more than 15 % after volume expansion were defined as responders. The 26 patients in the study consisted of 13 AZD5582 nmr responders and 13 nonresponders. Before volume expansion, a-(3)Vpeak and SVV were higher in the responders (both p values < 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of a-(3)Vpeak, SVV, and CVP were respectively 0.956 (95 % CI 0.885-1.00), 0.888 (95 % CI 0.764-1.00), and 0.331 (95 % CI 0.123-0.540). This study showed that SVV by NICOM and a-(3)Vpeak by echocardiography, but not CVP, reliably predicted fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation after ventricular septal defect repair in children.

CONCLUSION: This study shows that coconut shell can be an importa

CONCLUSION: This study shows that coconut shell can be an important low-cost biosorbent for Cu(II) removal. The results indicate that ion exchange, precipitation and electrostatic forces were involved in the Cu(II) removal by the biosorbents investigated. (C)

2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“In this research, fatly acid composition and trans fatty acids of 22 selected meat products produced by Turkish companies were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total fat contents of the meat products ranged from 11.60-42.50%. Salami had the lowest fat content 11.60% and sucuk (soudjuk) the highest Caspase activity assay 42.50%. Major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:0), trans C(18:1), cis C(18:1), and C(18:2) in the samples. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents have changed from 38.73 to 70.71% of total fatty acids, and sausage had the hi-hest percentage among the samples. The majority of samples contain trans fatty acids and the level ranged from 2.28 to 7.95% of the total fatty acids. The highest

amount of total trans fatty acids was determined in kavurma (Cavurmas) (7.95%), and total trans fatty acids of meat products such as pastrami contained more than 5% of the total fatty acids.”
“Objective: To determine indications and outcomes of pregnant women requiring neurologic imaging at a tertiary care center.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of women receiving magnetic resonance (MR) head imaging during pregnancy PF-4708671 to determine indications for such imaging and their pregnancy outcomes.

Results: Between April 2007 and December 2008, 60 pregnant women presented to Brigham and Women’s Hospital with severe headache or other acute neurologic complaint and underwent head imaging. Two patients were found to have significant findings considered to be neurologic emergencies: a right thalamic hemorrhage and a

subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nine patients had abnormal findings not requiring immediate intervention but deeming further evaluation. Sixteen patients had abnormal findings determined to be incidental and unrelated to their indication for imaging. Thirty-three patients had unremarkable imaging studies. The most common presenting symptoms included headache (70%) and visual disturbances (48%). The most common imaging studies obtained were MR brain DMXAA nmr without contrast (87%) and MR angiography head without contrast (73%). The majority of patients (96%) delivered in the third trimester without significant complications.

Conclusions: Most women who receive head imaging in pregnancy do not have adverse findings and have good obstetrical outcomes.”
“BACKGROUND: PHA (polyhydroxyalcanoates) are highly promising biopolymers, which are produced as storage material inside the cells by several microorganisms. During microorganism cultivations numerous parameters can be measured (DW, pH, glucose concentration, etc.) but the most important, e.g.

Five of the nine studies that examined the risk of developing sep

Five of the nine studies that examined the risk of developing sepsis/infection as a primary outcome (six of nine sepsis studies and all studies in the postoperative setting) found a decreased risk among statin users, whereas the remaining studies found no difference. Irrespective of their design (matched vs. non-matched), the majority of the studies suggested Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor that statins have a beneficial effect on the outcome of infection; however, their observational

design does not allow us to draw firm conclusions. The clinical benefit of statin therapy in sepsis remains to be determined by ongoing randomized controlled trials.”
“Although it is implied that suberized apoplastic barriers of roots negatively correlate with water and solute permeabilities, direct transport measurements across roots with altered amounts and compositions of aliphatic suberin are scarce. In the present study, hydroponically grown Arabidopsis wild types (Col8 and Col0) and different suberin mutants with altered amounts and/or compositions (horst, esb1-1,

and esb1-2) were used to test this hypothesis. Detailed histochemical studies revealed late development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in the horst mutant compared with wild types and esb mutants. Suberin analysis with gas chromatography PRT062607 solubility dmso and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the horst mutant

had similar to 33% lower amounts of aliphatic monomers than Col8 and Col0. In contrast, enhanced suberin mutants (esb1-1 and esb1-2) had twice the amount of suberin as the wild types. Correlative permeability measurements, which were carried out for the first time with a root pressure probe for Arabidopsis, revealed that the hydraulic conductivity CUDC-907 (Lp(r)) and NaCl permeability (P(sr)) of the whole root system of the horst mutant were markedly greater than in the respective wild types. This was reflected by the total amounts of aliphatic suberin determined in the roots. However, increased levels of aliphatic suberin in esb mutants failed to reduce either water or NaCl permeabilities below those of the wild types. It was concluded that the simple view and the conventional assumption that the amount of root suberin negatively correlates with permeability may not always be true. The aliphatic monomer arrangement in the suberin biopolymer and its microstructure also play a role in apoplastic barrier formation.”
“Study Design. A large animal study comparing interbody fusion of a bioresorbable scaffold loaded with either low-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) or bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs).


The origin of the multiple melting peaks may be a result of a mel

The origin of the multiple melting peaks may be a result of a melting and recrystallization Selleck LY333531 mechanism during DSC scans. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns showed two new diffraction peaks, which appeared at 0.44 and 0.37 nm, and are characteristic peaks of alpha-form (triclinic structure) of even-even nylons with increasing annealing temperature. The intensities of these peaks increased, and they split further apart, with elevated annealing temperatures. The solid-state (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra of the nylon 18 18 samples that had been quenched and annealed also confirmed the alpha-crystalline form. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 92-98, 2012″
“We demonstrate the dynamics

of coupling between the coherent longitudinal optical (LO) phonon and plasmon of instantaneously photogenerated electrons in an undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs (i-GaAs/n-GaAs) epitaxial structure using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Initially, we experimentally and numerically clarify the presence of the built-in electric field in the i-GaAs layer of the i-GaAs/n-GaAs epitaxial layer. Next, we performed the terahertz-wave measurements of the i-GaAs/n-GaAs epitaxial structure at various excitation conditions from a low density excitation regime to a high excitation regime. The LO-phonon-plasmon coupled (LOPC) mode has been confirmed from the terahertz-wave

measurement. It is found that the frequency of the LOPC mode is determined by the pump-beam power. This fact demonstrates that the LOPC mode is formed in the i-GaAs layer. In addition, we performed the time-partitioning Fourier ISRIB transform in order to reveal the dynamical change in the LOPC mode as a function of time delay. Using this analysis, we have observed that the disappearance of the LOPC mode immediately occurs within the time delay of 0.6 ps.

Following the disappearance of the LOPC mode, only the bare coherent GaAs LO phonon dominates the terahertz waves. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3603046]“
“Sclerosing stromal Tucidinostat manufacturer tumours (SST) of the ovary are rare, benign tumours. SSTs are usually hormone inactive and tend to occur in the second and third decades of life. The most common clinical symptom is menstrual irregularity.

Fourteen women diagnosed with SST of the ovary were included in this study. Tumour samples were collected, embedded in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and PAS with digestion, as well as immunohistochemically for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD 99, inhibin-alpha and the oestrogen and progesterone receptor.

The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 54 years (mean age 25.2 years). The tumours ranged in size from 6 to 21 cm (mean 10.5 cm). Macroscopically, eight tumours were solid and six were solid and cystic. All SSTs were well circumscribed with pseudolobule formation.

The difference in the rate of congenital anomalies was not statis

The difference in the rate of congenital anomalies was not statistically significant [7/97 (7.2%) vs. 15/440 (3.4%), p = 0.094]. The analysis was repeated among those exposed in T1 excluding genetic or cytogenetic anomalies or congenital infections [5/95(5.3%) vs. 14/440 (3.2%), p = 0.355]. There were no cases of neonatal lupus erythematosus. The gestational age at delivery was earlier, rate of preterm delivery higher, and birth weight lower, in the HCQ group.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that HCQ treatment in QNZ solubility dmso pregnancy is not a major human teratogen. The earlier gestational age

and lower birth weight might be associated with maternal disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment.

The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment Selleckchem Buparlisib on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments selleck kinase inhibitor in terms of microenvironment

and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable.”
“Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in offspring. Utilizing a rodent model of continuous moderate dose alcohol exposure throughout gestation [gestation day 1 (GD1)-GD22; BAC similar to 70 mg/dL], the impact of developmental alcohol exposure on juvenile cerebral cortex protein abundances was determined. At weaning, cerebral cortex tissue was collected from pups for 2D SDS-PAGE based proteome analysis with statistical analysis by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA).

In comparison to infection with parental virus or mock infection,

In comparison to infection with parental virus or mock infection, latent infection with a virus in which the gene encoding viral IL-10 has been deleted upregulated cytokines associated with dendritic cell (DC) formation and increased the proportion of myeloid DCs. These data demonstrate that viral IL-10 restricts the ability of latently infected myeloid progenitors to differentiate into DCs and identifies an immunomodulatory

role for viral IL-10 which may limit the host’s ability to clear latent virus.”
“Eyeblink conditioning has been used for assessing cognitive performance in cases of human neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we tested and compared the delay and long-trace interval (TI = 500 ms) eyeblink conditionings in a Tg2576 mouse model of AD, at the age of 3, 6, LCZ696 supplier and 12 months. Tg2576 mice exhibited significant impairment in trace conditioning at 6 months of age. In contrast, delay conditioning was not impaired in Tg2576 mice even at 12 months.

These findings indicate that the long-TI eyeblink conditioning is more susceptible to age-related cognitive deterioration than delay conditioning in Tg2576 mice. The long-trace eyeblink conditioning could be a potential tool for detecting early cognitive deficits in AD mouse model. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Safe and effective contraception is an international public health priority. The long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives are used by over 20 million women worldwide but their main drawback is abnormal selleck kinase inhibitor uterine bleeding. Such bleeding arises owing to structural and inflammatory changes which compromise endometrial microvascular and epithelial integrity.

The molecular and structural changes that lead to the vessel and surface epithelial fragility, and hence the side effect of abnormal uterine bleeding commonly seen with exogenous progestogen use, might be lessened by short-term treatments shown to shorten bleeding episodes.”
“Few data are available to address whether the use of ERP-based deception detection alternatives have sufficient validity for applied use. The present study was designed to replicate Selleck Nutlin 3a and extend J. P. Rosenfeld, M. Soskins, G. Bosh, and A. Ryan’s (2004) study by utilizing a virtual reality crime scenario to determine whether ERP-based procedures, including brain fingerprinting, can be rendered less effective by participant manipulation by employing a virtual reality crime scenario and multiple countermeasures. Bayesian and bootstrapping analytic approaches were used to classify individuals as guilty or innocent. Guilty subjects were detected significantly less frequently compared to previous studies; countermeasures further reduced the overall hit rates. Innocent participants remained protected from being falsely accused. Reaction times did not prove suitable for accurate classification.

In the present study, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of L

In the present study, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of LMP1 in BJAB and Ramos B cells resulted in an increase of hTERT transcripts, thus suggesting that LMP1 acts at the transcriptional level. This was confirmed by transient expression of a luciferase reporter plasmid containing the hTERT promoter cotransfected with an LMP1-expressing vector or transfected into B cells in which LMP1 expression was inducible. Consistently, silencing of LMP1 by small interfering RNA resulted in a reduction of hTERT transcripts. We also provide evidence

indicating that LMP1-induced hTERT activation GSK1904529A ic50 is independently mediated by NF-kappa B and by mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways, whereas CD40, Akt, and mTOR signaling has no involvement. AZD1480 concentration Moreover, our results do not support a role for c-Myc in mediating these effects on hTERT, since ectopic expression of LMP1 did not upregulate c-Myc and silencing of this oncogene

or E box mutagenesis failed to inhibit LMP1-induced hTERT activation. These findings indicate that LMP1 simultaneously modulates multiple signal transduction pathways in B cells to transactivate the hTERT promoter and enhance telomerase activity, thus confirming the pleiotropic nature of this viral oncoprotein.”
“Clinical studies have reported the beneficial outcome of addition of lower doses of risperidone to antidepressant therapy specifically with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depression. The present study, therefore, examined the beneficial effect, if any, of addition of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic) to the antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine (dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine, SNRI) or fluoxetine (SSRI) in Porsolt’s Forced Swim Test (FST) using male laca mice. Attempts have been made to study the involvement of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the mechanism of action. Immobility period was recorded for a period of 6 min. Venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (10 and

20 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the immobility period in mice. Addition of risperidone (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the anti-immobility effect of either PF-02341066 in vitro venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in mouse FST. Furthermore, the anti-immobility effect of combination of risperidone(0.1 mg/kg, i.p) plus venlafaxine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was potentiated by the addition of yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha-2 adrenoceptors antagonist. The results of the present study suggest that the beneficial consequences of addition of risperidone with venlafaxine or fluoxetine in mouse forced swim test may involve alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The infectious cycle of human cytomegalovirus ( HCMV) is intricately linked to the host’s cell cycle.

(J Vasc Surg 2011;53:115-22 )”
“cAMP (Adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic

(J Vasc Surg 2011;53:115-22.)”
“cAMP (Adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) is a general second messenger controlling distinct targets in eukaryotic cells. In a (sub)proteomic approach, two classes of phosphorothioate cAMP affinity tools were used to isolate and to identify signalling complexes of the main cAMP

target, cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA). Agonist analogues (here: Sp-cAMPS) bind to the regulatory subunits of PKA (PKA-R), together with their interaction partners, and cause dissociation of a holoenzyme complex comprising PKA-R and catalytic subunits of PKA (PKA-C). Antagonist analogues (here: Rp-cAMPS) bind to the holoenzyme without dissociating the complex and were developed to identify interaction partners that bind to the entire complex or to PKA-C.

More than 80 different proteins FRAX597 price were isolated from tissue extracts including several PKA isoforms and known as well as potentially new interaction partners. Nevertheless, unspecific binding of general nucleotide binding proteins limited the outcome of this chemical proteomics approach. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was employed to optimise the entire workflow of pull down proteomics and to quantify the effects of different nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and NADH) on PKA-R binding to affinity material. We could demonstrate that the addition of NADH AZD6738 order to lysates improved specificity in pull down experiments. Using a combination of SPR studies and pull down experiments it was shown unambiguously that it is possible to specifically elute protein complexes with cAMP or cGMP from cAMPS analogue matrices. The side-by-side analysis of the PKA-R interactome and the holoenzyme complexed with interacting proteins will contribute to a further dissection of the multifaceted PKA signalling network.”
“Background: this website Leg swelling in menopausal women is well known. Prevailing concept in primary care is that it is polycentric and a treatable cause may not be found. Patients are placed on empiric diuretics often without benefit.

Our clinical experience indicates that iliac venous vein obstruction is the core cause; a variety of secondary factors common in postmenopausal women precipitate symptoms.

Patients and Methods: A total of 163 limbs in 150 postmenopausal women (>= 55 years of age) with leg swelling unresponsive to conservative therapy underwent intravascular ultrasound-guided iliac vein stenting over an 11-year period. Preoperative investigations included duplex, airplethysmography, venous pressure tests, contrast studies, and lymphangiography. The postmenopausal group constituted 9% of all limbs (n = 1760) stented for chronic venous disease (CVD) during the same period and 18% of those stented for swelling (n = 922). Median age was 67 (range, 55-92) and left-to-right ratio 2:1.

Thus, it might be hypothesized that the anxiolytic effects of GAB

Thus, it might be hypothesized that the anxiolytic effects of GABAergic treatment might in part be mediated by their influence on 3 alpha,5 alpha-THDOC concentrations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

All rights reserved.”
“Daunorubicin is a chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the anthracycline family used for the treatment of many type of cancers when doxorubicin or other less effective drugs cannot be used. The aim of the present study was labeling of Daunorubicin with Tc-99m, quality control, characterization, and biodistribution of radiolabeled Daunorubicin. Labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C). More than 96% labeling efficiency with Tc-99m was achieved at pH 5-6, 2-4 mu Selleck GSK690693 g stannous chloride and 300 mu g of ligand in few minutes. The characterization of the compound was performed by using HPLC, electrophoresis and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates

that Tc-99m-Daunorubicin is neutral, HPLC confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of Tc-99m-Daunorubicin were performed in rats. Significantly higher accumulation of Tc-99m-Daunorubicin was seen in brain of normal rats. Scintigraphy was also indicating higher accumulation of Tc-99m-Daunorubicin in brain of normal rabbits. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. check details All rights reserved.”
“Spatial evolutionary games are studied with myopic

players whose payoff interest, as a personal character, is tuned from selfishness to other-regarding preference via fraternity. The players are located on a square lattice and collect income from symmetric two-person two-strategy (called cooperation and defection) games with their nearest neighbors. During the elementary steps of evolution a randomly chosen player modifies her strategy in order to maximize stochastically her utility function composed from her own and the co-players’ income with weight factors 1-Q and Q. These models APR-246 mouse are studied within a wide range of payoff parameters using Monte Carlo simulations for noisy strategy updates and by spatial stability analysis in the low noise limit. For fraternal players (Q=1/2) the system evolves into ordered arrangements of strategies in the low noise limit in a way providing optimum payoff for the whole society. Dominance of defectors, representing the “”tragedy of the commons”", is found within the regions of prisoner’s dilemma and stag hunt game for selfish players (Q=0). Due to the symmetry in the effective utility function the system exhibits similar behavior even for Q=1 that can be interpreted as the “”lovers’ dilemma”". (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.