1 Liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR)-mediated local tissue damag

1 Liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR)-mediated local tissue damage combines two phases of ischemia-trigged hypoxic cellular stress and inflammation-mediated reperfusion injury. Endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inflicted tissue damage initiates circulatory disturbances and cascade of inflammation responses, leading to the ultimate hepatocyte death. Our group was among the first to document that activation of sentinel Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is required in the mechanism of liver

IRI.2 We then provided evidence that IR-triggered TLR4, primarily on Kupffer cells/macrophages, activates downstream “signature” proinflammatory programs, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-beta (IFN-β), and C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)10.3, 4 The immune system and the nervous system maintain extensive communication and mount a variety of integrated responses to danger JAK inhibitor signals through intricate chemical messengers. The innate immune system provides the first defense line against invading pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and releasing proinflammatory mediators.5 These immune components convey the peripheral message to the brainstem and preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, the activate Fulvestrant molecular weight systemic neuroendocrine hypothalamus, and regional neural-hormonal–stress response, which

amplify local inflammation to eliminate pathogens.6-9 This interplay constitutes an important feedback loop that optimizes, monitors, and adjusts isothipendyl innate inflammation by stimulation of efferent vagus nerve activity.6, 7 The neural modulation of local inflammation eventually restores host homestasis and the return to a resting status.10 The mammalian nervous system, equipped with neuropeptides and peptide hormones with pro- and anti-inflammatory

properties, may directly defend the host from microbial assault.9 Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP), a 38-amino-acid neuropeptide (PACAP38), and a C-terminally truncated 27-amino-acid form (PACAP27), originally isolated from ovine hypothalamus,11 belong to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family. The PACAP sequence shows a 68% homology with VIP and was identified as a hypothalamic hormone that stimulates adenylate cyclase in pituitary cells.12 PACAP is expressed throughout the nervous system, adrenal gland, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and liver.12 Interestingly, PACAP storage/gene expression is found in central (e.g., thymus) and peripheral (e.g., spleen and lymph nodes) lymphoid organs and some lymphoid cells.13 PACAP exerts its function through three G-protein-coupled receptors.12 These include vasoactive receptors with high affinity for VIP and PACAP (i.e., VIP/PACAP receptor [VPAC]1, constitutively expressed in lymphocytes/macrophages, and VPAC2, expressed selectively in stimulated lymphocytes/macrophages).

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