3 billion PT trips, representing a 32% increase compared to 1995. Between January and September 2008, PT usership increased, for example, by 3.8% in New York, 8.1% in Atlanta, and 32.7% in Charlotte, NC (APTA, 2008). Plans of developing a rapid rail network across the US are under discussion. The similar inflammatory and epigenetic traits observed in this study in car and PT commuters convey an important and apparently neglected prevention message that, if not integrated into a more general strategy
to achieve overall dietary and physical activity objectives, society may miss the health benefit to be harvested if commute modes increasingly are switched from car to PT. None of the authors have conflict of interests with the content of the paper. This COMIR (Commuting Mode and Inflammatory Response) project received financial support from the CUNY http://www.selleckchem.com/products/sorafenib.html Collaborative Incentive Research Grant (CIRG) program, round 16, number 1606, from the NIEHS Center ES009089 at Columbia University, and from the University of North Texas Health Science Center School of Public Health Seed Program. Results have been presented orally at the Meeting of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE, Barcelona, September
14, 2011). The authors thank Tashia Amstislavski and Steves Vanderpool for their help in the recruitment and data collection. “
“Cancer, cardiovascular disease, BGJ398 and diabetes affect more than half of working adults in the United States (Gulley et al., 2011 and Institute of Medicine, 2010). Two of the primary underlying causes of these and other chronic diseases in the United States are linked to behavioral and subsequent health risk factors (e.g., obesity and tobacco use that often begin in childhood) (Mokdad et al., 2004). In fact, approximately 18% of those aged 12–19 years in the United States are obese (Ogden & Carroll, 2010), and approximately 19% of high school students are current
smokers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). In 2010, the US Department of Health and Human Services funded the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) project through CDC to accelerate community- and state-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) improvements that ultimately could Carnitine dehydrogenase reduce the US economic burden of chronic disease by making healthy living easier (Bunnelll et al., 2012). The CPPW project addressed disparities in chronic diseases among racial and ethnic subpopulations, socioeconomic groups, and geographic settings. CDC awarded more than $400 million to 50 communities for a 2-year intervention period. In addition, evaluation was supported to examine the effectiveness of PSE improvements and to expand the evidence base. In this supplement, we expand on the work of Bunnelll and colleagues, who in 2012 reported on outcomes after the first 12 months of the CPPW program by showcasing actual CPPW community-based, data-informed strategies implemented to make healthy living easier.