30 and 35 The 2-km walk test was not recommended for subjects wit

30 and 35 The 2-km walk test was not recommended for subjects with chronic pain syndrome, for example fibromyalgia, due to underestimation of exercise capacity.38 Three of the 14 studies

assessed reliability (test-retest reliability) and acceptability (dropout rate) of other submaximal bicycle ergometer tests. Protocols of these exercise tests are available from the authors. Test-retest reliability was good in the studies by van Santen et al, 39 and 40 with ICCs of 0.70 to 0.86. The dropout rates of 0 to 33% among the various tests were considered acceptable.41 Five studies evaluated the reliability, criterion validity and acceptability of walk tests. Smeets et al42 assessed test-retest reliability, reporting an ICC of 0.89 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.93). Harding et al43 reported a Pearson’s r of 0.944. Selleck Epacadostat Task experience did not significantly influence test-retest differences. 42 Inter-rater reliability was reported as ICCs of 0.994 by Harding et al 43 and 1.000 by Sato et al. 44 Intra-rater reliability was reported as an ICC selleck products of 0.979 by Sato et al 44 and day-to-day reliability as an ICC of 0.87 by Simmonds et al. 45 The critical difference was 20%. 42 Therefore, reliability of the 5-minute, 6-minute or 10-minute walk tests is good to excellent. The 5-minute walk test is considered useful. 42 and 45 No specialised equipment is required

and walk tests appear to be acceptable for people with chronic low back pain. 45 Criterion validity was established between the from 5-minute and 10-minute walk tests with a high Spearman’s rank correlation of r = 0.985. 43 Criterion validity of the walk tests was assessed against the 50-foot walk, the Functional Independence Measures (FIM) scale, various performance-based tests, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Function questionnaire. Simmonds et al 45 reported a moderate correlation of the 5-minute walk test with the 50-foot walk, r = 0.617. Sato et al 44 reported a significant correlation

of the 6-minute walk test with the Functional Independence Measures scale (r = 0.652, p < 0.01), which was used to evaluate activities of daily living. Mannerkorpi et al 46 correlated the 6-minute walk test against various performance-based tests (chair rising test, hand grip strength, endurance shoulder muscles, abduction, hand to neck, hand to scapula) but the criterion validity was fair to moderate, with r-values ranging from –0.46 to 0.63. Criterion validity was established between the 6-minute walk tests and two subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire: the physical function scale (r = –0.48, p < 0.001) and the pain scale (r = –0.39, p < 0.01). In the same study, 46 the 6-minute walk test also correlated with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical function scale (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), the SF-36 bodily pain scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.

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