B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126. 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research EPZ-6438 nmr on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression,
whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Generally treatment decisions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are based
on prostate selleck chemical size and surgeon experience. Prostates greater than 100 gm often require open surgery. However, less invasive options are available. Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is a viable and effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined the outcome of holmium laser enucleation of the
prostate based on prostate size.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients in our institutional review board approved database who about underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate from January 1999 to October 2006. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts based on preoperative transrectal ultrasound prostate measurements, including less than 75, 75 to 125 and more than 125 gm. Patients with prostate cancer were excluded from study. Demographic, laboratory, operative, preoperative and postoperative data were obtained.
Results: As prostate size increased, so did prostate specific antigen, and the urinary retention and enucleation rates. Hospitalization, catheterization, preoperative and postoperative outcomes were similar among the groups. On linear regression the decrease in prostate specific antigen highly correlated with the amount of tissue removed (p < 0.0001). The complication rate was similar among the treatment groups. All patients did equally well in terms of postoperative urinary function independent of prostate size.