Compared with daily smokers, nondaily smokers tend to be younger,

Compared with daily smokers, nondaily smokers tend to be younger, better educated, protein inhibitors Black and Hispanic, and wealthier (Gilpin et al., 1997; Hassmiller et al., 2003; Wortley et al., 2003). Nondaily smokers often do not consider themselves smokers and, consequently, are under-recognized by clinicians (Schane et al., 2009a); up to 42% classify themselves as nonsmokers when questioned about tobacco product use (Fergusson & Horwood, 1995). Even though nondaily smoking increases risk for many diseases (Schane, Ling, & Glantz, 2010; Surgeon General, 2004), this propensity to self-identify as a nonsmoker reinforces nondaily smokers�� belief that nondaily smoking does not carry health risks (Tong, Ong, Vittinghoff, & Perez-Stable, 2006).

Nondaily smokers report greater intention to quit and are more likely to succeed than everyday smokers (Hennrikus, Jeffery, & Lando, 1996; Sargent, Mott, & Stevens, 1998). Among 12�C18 year olds, occasional smoking is associated with a sevenfold increase in cessation compared with everyday smoking (Sargent et al., 1998). While prime targets for intervention (Hassmiller et al., 2003; Wortley et al., 2003), nondaily smokers may require a new treatment paradigm. Standard cessation counseling that focuses on personal health risks may not motivate them to quit, because they tend to minimize health risks due to their tobacco use (Hyland, Rezaishiraz, Bauer, Giovino, & Cummings, 2005; Tong et al., 2006), In contrast, observational data support counseling nondaily smokers on the dangers that their secondhand smoke (SHS) poses to others as a promising cessation message (Schane & Glantz, 2008; Tong et al.

, 2006). Public education campaigns about the dangers of SHS (California Environmental Protection Agency, 2005; Surgeon General, 2006) have been a staple of state tobacco control programs since California first started focusing on them in 1989 (Goldman & Glantz, 1998). Having a smokefree home is associated with increased smoking cessation among adult smokers (Mills, Messer, Gilpin, & Pierce, 2009). The pediatric literature reports that counseling parents about the dangers their SHS poses to their children (Caponnetto, Polosa, & Best, 2008) leads to changes in parental smoking.

Of 19 trials with parental Batimastat SHS reduction as their primary target, those that focused on parental education and counseling were most effective at reducing children��s SHS exposure measured by reduced self-reported parental cigarette consumption, home air nicotine levels, or children��s urinary cotinine (Baheiraei et al., 2011; Tyc, Hovell, & Winickoff, 2008). Mothers who received counseling that focused on ways to reduce childhood exposure to parental tobacco smoke significantly reduced their cigarette consumption more than mothers in the control group (Hovell et al., 2000).

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