Contrary to our prediction, the gingipain null mutant KDP136 and

Contrary to our prediction, the gingipain null mutant KDP136 and Rgp mutant KDP133 showed different tendencies of autoaggregation from MPG4167, although all of these strains were considered to be long/short fimbriae deficient mutants. Thus, not only fimbrial expression but also other

factors, modified by gingipains, seem to be involved in autoaggregation. In addition, it was found that autoaggregation and biofilm parameters such as biovolume, number of peaks Navitoclax chemical structure and peak height were not significantly correlated in every strain (Figure 2, Figure 4, Table 1 and Table 3). This result suggests that autoaggregation is not the sole determinant of alteration in structure of P. gingivalis biofilms. Tenacity of biofilms To analyze the influence of the

molecules under investigation on vulnerability of biofilms, the physical strength of the biofilms against brief ultrasonication was compared (Figure 6). Consistent with the results of image analysis CCI-779 described in Figure 4 and Figure 5A, the long/short fimbriae mutant MPG4167 and Rgp mutant KDP133 formed expansive biofilms with large numbers of cells in dTSB, however, their strength was found to be very fragile compared to the other strains, suggesting that these biofilms consisted of loosely connected microcolonies. In contrast, the biofilms of the long fimbria mutant KDP150 were resistant to sonic disruption, suggesting that long fimbriae are initial mediator of biofilm formation but are not required to maintain resistance against environmental shear force. Figure 6 Tenacity Vasopressin Receptor of biofilms formed by P. gingivalis wild tstrain and mutants. Standardized cultures of P. gingivalis were inoculated into dTSB in saliva-coated 12-well polystyrene plate and incubated in a static manner at 37°C for 60 hours, with the resulting biofilms sonicated for 1 second. Immediately

after sonication, supernatants containing floating cells were removed by aspiration and the biofilm remains were gently washed with PBS. P. gingivalis genomic DNA was isolated from the biofilms and the numbers of P. gingivalis cells were determined using real-time PCR. Relative amounts of bacterial cell numbers were calculated based on the number of wild-type cells without sonication considered to be 1.0. Percentages shown indicate the amount of remaining biofilm after sonic disruption. The experiment was repeated independently three times with each strain in duplicate. Standard error bars are shown. Statistical analysis was performed using a Scheffe test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 in comparison to the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggest that long fimbriae are required for initial formation of biofilms by P. gingivalis, but suppress the development of an exopolysaccharide-enriched basal layer that is related to the adhesive property of biofilms.

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