GA was categorized into three subtypes: endotracheal tube intubat

GA was categorized into three subtypes: endotracheal tube intubation general anesthesia (ETGA), intravenous injection general anesthesia (IVGA) or intramuscular injection general anesthesia (IMGA), and heavy sedation. The multiple logistic regression model was used for analyses. Results: Individuals exposed to surgery under ETGA (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [Cl],

1.25-1.44) and those exposed to surgery under IVGA or IMGA (OR, 1.28; 95% Cl, 1.14 1.43) were at significantly higher risk of dementia in a dose response relationship (P smaller than .0001), whereas surgery under heavy sedation was not associated with increased risk of dementia (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.68-1.59). The dementia risk for subjects with diabetes mellitus who received surgery under ETGA (OR, 1.59; selleck chemical 95% CI, 1.42-1.78), hypertension (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.78-2.21), atherosclerosis (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.22-1.50), or after having experienced.a stroke (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 3.13-3.97), but no interaction was found between surgery under ETGA and depression for the risk of dementia. Conclusions: Fosbretabulin inhibitor A history of previous exposure to surgery under GA might be associated with an increased risk of dementia, particularly in subjects who have

undergone repeated exposure to GA. In addition, subjects who had received surgery under ETGA with comorbidities such as stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis could have a potential relationship with dementia risk. (c) 2014 The Alzheimer’s Association. All rights reserved.”
“Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films were fabricated on silicon and titanium by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of CaCO3 and its subsequent conversion to hydroxyapatite by diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) solution. The effects

of conversion Compound C process parameters to crystallinity and morphology of the films were examined. DAP concentration was found to be critical in controlling the crystal size and homogeneity of the films. The hydroxyapatite phase was identified by XRD. ToF-elastic recoil detection analysis studies revealed that the films are calcium deficient in relation to hydroxyapatite with a Ca/P ratio of 1.39 for films converted with 0.2 M DAP at 95 degrees C. The coatings prepared on titanium conformally follow the rough surface topography of the substrate, verifying that the good step coverage of the ALD method was maintained in the conversion process. The dissolution tests revealed that the coating was nondissolvable in the cell culture medium. Annealing the coated sample at 700 degrees C for 1 h seemed to enhance its bonding properties to the substrate. Also, the biocompatibility of the coatings was confirmed by human bone marrow derived cells in vitro. The developed method provides a new possibility to produce thin film coatings on titanium implants with bone-type hydroxyapatite that is biocompatible with human osteo-blasts and osteoclasts. (C) 2014 American Vacuum Society.

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