However, despite the smaller number of genera detected in the two human groups, a larger fraction of the variance in their
saliva microbiome is due to differences among individuals (28.9-36.3%) than is the SNX-5422 datasheet case for the two Pan species (11.3-19.1%), as shown in Table 1. Overall, then, the human saliva microbiome is characterized by fewer genera, but bigger differences in composition among individuals, than is the Pan saliva microbiome. A heat plot (Additional file 2: Figure S2) of the frequency of each genus in each individual indicates that the dominant genera in the saliva microbiomes of the two Pan species are different from those in humans. While the ten most frequent genera (accounting for 78% of all sequences) are indicated in the pie charts in Figure 1, a detailed distribution of all bacterial genera with abundances over 0.5% in at least one group is shown in Figure 2. These 28 genera accounted for 98.7% of all sequences
in humans and 96.2% in the apes. LEE011 research buy The frequencies of all displayed genera were significantly different between Pan and Homo (chi-square tests, p < 0.001). The most striking differences were seen in the Gamma-Proteobacteria in which various genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae (particularly the genus Enterobacter) consistently dominated in humans. Conversely, a number of genera within Pasteurellaceae Abiraterone purchase consistently dominated in the apes, along with Neisseria (from the Beta-Proteobacteria). With one exception (Granulicatella) genera within the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria had higher abundances in humans than in apes. In contrast, genera within Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes exhibited higher abundances in apes compared to humans (with the exception of Prevotella). Figure 2 Relative abundance of predominant genera (> 0.5%) indicated by with gray scale values with significant differences in: A, African humans
(H) compared to sanctuary apes (WA); B, sanctuary apes (WA) compared to zoo apes (ZA). Non-significant differences are indicated by asterisks. The phylogenetic tree was calculated with representative full-length sequences as implemented in the ARB program package  using the GDC-0449 in vitro Jukes-Cantor correction. The scale bar represents evolutionary distance (10 substitutions per 100 nucleotides). Bacterial phyla are indicated by different colors; the vertical bars on the right of each plot indicate the relative abundance of each phylum, as marked by the colors. Partial correlation analysis was performed in order to compare possible interactions among bacterial genera in humans with those in apes (Additional file 2: Figure S3).