However, we do not know why Sco amplified its membership in the D

However, we do not know why Sco amplified its membership in the DHA2 family but not the DHA1 or DHA3 family. The MHS Family (2.A.1.6) includes members that transport a wide range of metabolites, particularly organic acids such as Krebs cycle intermediates. While Mxa has one such member, Sco has six. Other MFS families that may

take up organic acids that are represented in Sco to a greater extent than in Mxa include the OFA (3; 0), ACS (3; 0), AAHS (3; 1) and CP (3; 0) Families. It therefore appears that Sco uses organic acids to a Selleckchem SN-38 much greater extent than does Mxa. Other interesting observations are: (1) Sco has four members of the poorly characterized ADT (Adietane) Family while Mxa has none; (2) Mxa has three ALK inhibitor peptide uptake systems of the AAT Family while Sco has none; (3) both organisms have nitrate:nitrite porters of the NNP Family; (4) both have members of the YnfM (acriflavin sensitivity) Family (of unknown physiological function); (5) Sco has seven members of the MocC (Rhizopine) Family while Mxa has only one, and (6) Sco has representation in the functionally

uncharacterized UMF1 (one), UMF9 (one) and UMF16 (five members), while Mxa has representation (a single protein) only in the UMF1 family. Perhaps of greatest surprise is the fact that Mxa has a member of the AAA Family, members of which are usually restricted to obligatory intracellular parasites that utilize the see more cytoplasmic nucleotides of their hosts as energy sources [50]. The Mxa protein is a homologue (e-41) of a characterized NAD+:ADP antiporter (2.A.12.4.1) [51]. Possibly, Mxa can take up nucleotides such as NAD+, ATP and ADP from the medium. Since it is a “micropredator” which lyses other bacteria, the presence of nucleotides in Dapagliflozin its growth medium would not be unexpected [52] (see Discussion). Another surprise was the discovery that Mxa and other bacteria have homologues of Spinster (Spns1 and 2), intracellular organellar sphingosine-1-phosphate or sphingolipid

transporters involved in immune development, lymphocyte trafficking, and necrotic and antiphagic cell death in animals [53–56]. NCBI-BLAST searches revealed that many bacteria encode these homologues in their genomes. Two of these bacterial proteins have been entered into TCDB under TC#s 2.A.1.49.7 and 8. It will be interesting to learn if the substrates of these prokaryotic transporters are the same as in eukaryotes. Sphingolipids represent a major outer membrane lipid class in some myxobacteria [57]. The amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily Eleven families currently comprise the APC Superfamily (see TCDB), and most of them (seven) are concerned with the uptake of amino acids and their derivatives [58, 59]. Sco has 32 APC superfamily members while Mxa has only six. Table 8 lists the numbers of representatives of these families in Sco and Mxa.

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