In the present study, the behavioral phenotype including the resp

In the present study, the behavioral phenotype including the response to challenges was analyzed in NPY-Y2 knockout (KO) mice backcrossed in to congenic C57BL/6 background. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST), the Selleckchem RAD001 anxiolytic-like or antidepressant-like phenotype of the NPY-Y2 KO mice could not be confirmed, although this study differs from the previous one only with regard

to the genetic background of the mice. In addition, no differences in response to acute stress or to the antidepressant desipramine in the FST were detected between wild type (WT) and NPY-Y2 KO animals. These results suggest that the genetic background of the animals appears to have a strong influence on the behavioral phenotype of NPY-Y2 KO mice. Additionally, to further characterize the animals by their biochemical response

to a challenge, the neurochemical changes induced by the anxiogenic compound yohimbine were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of NPY-Y2 KO and compared to WT mice. Dopamine (DA) levels were significantly increased by yohimbine in the WT but unaffected in the KO mice, suggesting that NPY-Y2 receptor exerts a direct control over both the tonic and phasic release of DA and that, although the anxiety-like behavior of these NPY-Y2 KO mice is unaltered, there are clear modifications of DA dynamics. However, yohimbine led to a significant increase in noradrenaline (NA) concentration and a slight reduction in serotonin concentration that were identical for both phenotypes. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Intrapatient variability of the Gemcitabine mouse attachment (G) protein gene

of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was examined using both population and single-genome sequencing. Samples from three patients infected with a group B virus variant which has a 60-nucleotide duplication in the G protein gene were examined. These samples were chosen because occasional mixed sequence bases were observed. In a minority of RSV genomes from these patients considerable others variability was found, including point mutations, insertions, and deletions. Of particular note, the deletion of the exact portion of the gene which had been duplicated in some isolates was observed in viral RNAs from two patients.”
“The effects of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M beta CD), an oligosaccharide, on ion currents were investigated in differentiated NG108-15 neuronal cells. In NG108-15 cells treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the expression level of the K(v)3.1 mRNA was elevated. Depletion of membrane cholesterol by exposing cells to M beta CD (1 mM) resulted in a significant reduction of the activation kinetics of delayed rectifier K+ current (I-kappa((DR))) in these cells. However, neither activation nor inactivation curve of I-kappa(DR) was altered following M beta CD treatment.

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