Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology
and motility, and testosterone levels selleck chemical compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.”
“Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) degree of stenosis and calcium volume in CT angiography (CTA) images.
In this retrospective study involving CTA images of 88
consecutive patients, intracranial ICA stenosis was quantitatively measured by two independent observers. Stenoses were categorized with cutoff values of 30% and 50%. The calcification in the intracranial ICA was qualitatively categorized as absent, www.selleckchem.com/products/Trichostatin-A.html mild, moderate, or severe and quantitatively measured using the semi-automatic application. Linear weighted kappa values were calculated to assess the interobserver agreement of the stenosis and calcium categorization. The find more average and the standard deviation of the quantitative calcium volume were calculated for the calcium categories.
For the stenosis measurements, the CTA images of 162 arteries yielded an interobserver correlation of 0.78
(P < 0.001). Kappa values of the categorized stenosis measurements were moderate: 0.45 and 0.58 for cutoff values of 30% and 50%, respectively. The kappa value for the calcium categorization was 0.62, with a good agreement between the qualitative and quantitative calcium assessment.
Quantitative degree of stenosis measurement of the intracranial ICA on CTA is feasible with a good interobserver agreement ICA. Qualitative calcium categorization agrees well with quantitative measurements.”
“Accumulating evidence shows that T cells penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma in several autoimmune, infectious, and degenerative neurological diseases. The structural and functional consequences for CNS neurons of their encounter with activated T cells have been investigated in several experimental systems, including ex vivo co-cultures, electrophysiology, and in vivo imaging. Here, we review the modalities of neuron/T cell interactions.