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Spin-phonon SC79 molecular weight coupling effects in antiferromagnetic Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2010, 10:4596–4601.CrossRef 27. Iliev MN, Guo H, Gupta A: Raman spectroscopy evidence of strong spin-phonon coupling in epitaxial thin films of the double perovskite La 2 NiMnO 6 . Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90:151914.CrossRef 28. Zheng H: Quantum lattice fluctuations as a source of frustration in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a square lattice. Phys Lett Selumetinib purchase A 1995, 199:409–415.CrossRef 29. Bonner JC, Fisher ME: Linear magnetic chains with anisotropic coupling. Phys Rev 1964, 135:A640-A658.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SYW wrote, conceived of, and designed the experiments. PHS grew the samples and analyzed the data. CLC contributed the Raman experimental facility and valuable discussions. All authors discussed the results, contributed to the manuscript text, commented on the manuscript, and approved its final version.”
“Background Graphene, a one-dimensional carbon sp2-bonded compound is finding considerable attention in the development of advance nanomaterials. Chemically modified graphene is studied for their importance in biomedical
sensors, composites, field-effect transistors, energy conversion, and storage applications due to its excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Reduced graphene oxide
(RGO) can be produced LY294002 supplier by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by various methods. High temperature annealing of GO above 1,000°C is an effective method to produce RGO . Sodium borohydride  and hydrazine [3–5] are also acceptable chemical methods for the reduction of GO to produce the RGO. Among the methods to synthesize RGO are by chemical exfoliation of GO in propylene carbonate followed by thermal reduction [4, 5]. Another method of reduction of GO is by using hydrohalic acids . Nutrients such as vitamin clonidine C [7, 8] and metallic element such as aluminum powder  are also viable reducing agents for the production of RGO from GO. Hydrothermal reduction is also an effective method for the reduction of GO to RGO . Electrochemical reduction to produce RGO or better known as electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) is considered a green method which offers safer procedures compared to other chemical methods of reduction without the use of dangerous chemicals such as hydrazine. A suspension of GO was evaporated on glassy carbon and used as an electrode and reduced by voltammetric cycling in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution to produce ERGO films . Electrochemical reduction of GO suspensions were also done in acidic media using phosphate buffer solution at pH 4  and basic pH at 7.2 . Direct electrochemical reduction of GO onto glassy carbon has also been reported  in sulfuric acid  and in NaCl solution .