re also able to confirm that ERK1 2 activation occurs at an early

re also able to confirm that ERK1 2 activation occurs at an early stage of HAstV1 infection. The phos phorylation level of various kinases was e amined at dif ferent times post infection by Western blotting for both phosphorylated and phosphorylation independent epitopes of each kinase. The signal intensity of each band relative to that of each mock infected sample selleck chemicals Trichostatin A at 0. 25 hpi is presented in Figure 2C. Compared with that of the mock infected sample, the phosphorylation levels of ERK1 2 were noticeably elevated at the early time points. Similarly, the p38 phosphorylation level appeared to be elevated at 0. 25 hpi. A marginal increase in the phosphorylation level of JNK was observed in the infected cells throughout the time points e amined.

However, only the phos phorylation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of ERK1 2, and not that of p38 and JNK, was necessary for infection, judged from the results of the capsid protein e pression assay performed with inhibi tors specific to these kinases. We noted that the level of phosphorylated ERK1 2 increased at 8 hpi, an observation not reported earlier. This is unlikely to be related to any infec tion event because phosphorylated ERK1 2 was similarly elevated at this time point in the mock infected sample. Our search for additional HAstV1 infection related signaling pathways uncovered evidence for the import ance of PI3K activation. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 effectively blocked post infection viral capsid e pression, whereas the other PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, was slightly less effective, evidenced by the unusual punctate signal of capsid protein.

A possible e planation Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is that although more potent than LY294002 in inhibiting PI3K activation, wortmannin is only stable for a few minutes in the cellular environment, making the PI3K inhibiting effect of LY294002 more apparent in a treat ment that lasted 24 h. One possibility consistent Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with the observed effect of PI3K inhibitors on HAstV1 infection is that they may have led to the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. PI3K and MAP kinase pathways are known to crosstalk through small GTPases such as Ras and Raf1. To evaluate this possibility, the phosphorylation level of ERK in the presence or the absence of a PI3K blocker was analyzed by Western blotting. We found that, unlike U0126, which abolished post infection ERK phosphoryl Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ation, LY294002 did not affect their phosphorylation.

Thus, the PI3K inhibitor did not e ert its effect through an interference with ERK activation, but acted on a distinct, essential process in HAstV1 infection. We then asked whether known downstream targets of PI3K signaling, such as Akt, play a role in HAstV1 infection. Consistent with PI3K activation in the viral infection Carfilzomib and with Akt being a target of activated PI3K, the e tent of Akt phosphorylation was greater in the 0. 25 h and 0. 5 h post infection samples than in the corresponding mock infected control. However, treatment with 10 uM triciribine promotion or with 10 uM MK2206, both of which are known to inhibit Akt

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