The service models of the 14 commercial health plans included in HIRESM encompass health maintenance organizations, point of service, preferred provider
organizations, and indemnity plans, and span most of the major regional population centers of the US. The claims data tend to overrepresent the US Census data for ages 30–64 and underrepresent the US Census data for ages 65 and older . We selected all claims with a service date between 1 July 2006 and 6 May 2012 and aggregated them by seasons: 2007–2008 through 2011–2012. We defined each season as starting on 1 July and ending on 30 MAPK inhibitor April of respective years. To avoid duplicate claims, we included only the claims that had been paid or adjudicated. This study did not require IRB approval because researchers throughout the study only had access to a dataset that did not include any identifiable personal information, preserving patient anonymity and confidentiality
as well as ensuring full compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. The analysis included actively enrolled members: those who had ≥12 months of continuous health plan enrollment before the beginning of each year’s vaccination season (1 July) and continuous health plan enrollment throughout the vaccination season (through 30 April). These subjects, grouped by the seasons, comprised the denominators in all analyses, except weekly vaccination FG-4592 clinical trial analysis. The denominators for weekly unless vaccination analyses included all patients who were enrolled in the plans as of 1 July and throughout the season (until 30 April). Because this study was conducted with data from administrative databases, no personal information was reported. Seasonal influenza vaccination with IIV or LAIV was identified based on seasonal influenza vaccination through the current procedural terminology (CPT) and generic product identifier (GPI) codes. CPT codes were 90654, 90655, 90656, 90661, and 90662 for split virus, preservative-free IIV; 90657 and 90658 for split virus, preservative-containing IIV; 90659 for whole virus IIV; and 90660 for LAIV. GPI codes were 1710002021, 1710002023,
1710002044 for split virus, preservative-free IIV; 1710002020, and 1710002040 split virus, preservative-containing IIV; 1710002010 for whole virus IIV; and 1710002050 for LAIV. For children (≤8 years of age), who received two doses of vaccine, we counted only the first vaccination. The following characteristics were obtained in association with each vaccination: patient age (calculated on the day of vaccination), geographic location (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) according to US census regional classifications , number of outpatient office visits to a healthcare provider (0 to ≥6) in the 12 months prior to the start of the vaccination season (referred to as “number of outpatient office visits” in this manuscript), and the type of vaccine administered.