There were

There were selleck screening library also rice grains and phytoliths, acorns, oyster shells, and the bones of dogs, pigs, and other animals ( Zhong et al., 2007). Subsequent research farther inland at Yangshan Cave has also yielded wild rice belonging to the Kuahuqiao period and some

traces in the Sangshan period, dated to about 10,000 cal BP. Interestingly, many pottery sherds of the Sangshan period were tempered with plant remains, including some rice husks ( Zhao, 2011). The site of Jiahu (9000–7800 cal BP), on the Upper Huai River about midway between the Yangzi and Yellow rivers, was the first early and well-documented example of a substantial settled village with rice farming. Jiahu covers some 50,000 m2 and includes residential areas, manufacturing areas, and cemeteries in orderly array. Charred plant remains recovered from soil samples represent a broad suite of lotus roots, acorns, Trapa nuts, rice, soybean (Glycine max), and other edible plants. Wild species gathered locally clearly dominated the local diet at Jiahu, but because the site lies beyond the known distribution of wild rice, it is evident that the rice consumed in the village was cultivated there ( Liu et al., 2007). Surprising

evidence of rice fermentation at Jiahu ( McGovern et al., 2004) further illustrates Selleckchem ON1910 the importance of rice to Early Neolithic cultures, regardless of its domestication status. Recovered bones represented about 20 animal species, among which dog was the only domesticate, and almost all the trash pits contained fish bones ( Zhao, 2011). The Jiahu community Molecular motor was supported primarily by the hunting, fishing, and gathering of wild plants and animals, but it represents the kind of geographical circumstances in which the transition was made from hunting-gathering to wet-rice farming in China, and within which endlessly replicated infrastructures

of villages, dams, ditches, and other features would come to exemplify the engineering of a major new human ecological niche. It is clear that China’s Central Plain (Fig. 1), the vast alluvial lowland laid down by the annual flooding of the Yellow River in the north and the Yangzi River in the south, and extending deep inland from the Pacific Coast to the Qinling Mountains, was the heartland of grand-scale agricultural development in China and the great economic engine of its sociopolitical growth. Millets (both foxtail Setaria italica and broomcorn Panicum miliaceum) and other dryland grains of generally northern origins were cultivated there, and so was rice, a plant native to the alluvial subtropical wetlands of the region. For many decades research into the origins and development of Chinese civilization focused on north China’s Middle Yellow River Valley, including its small tributary, the Wei River Valley, where the modern city of Xi’an is located.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>