Time course experiments also showed that cytokine expression leve

Time course experiments also showed that cytokine expression levels coincided with protection. When cytokines were inhibited in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of antibody, only neutralization of IL-17 was associated with an increase in H. pylori colonization, even though local Th1 responses were enhanced. These results suggest that IL-17 may be more important for protection against H. pylori than TNF or even IFN-γ, which is usually considered the benchmark immune correlate of protection. However, the effects of IL-17 on H. pylori may be complex, as other investigators

have suggested that IL-17 actually enhances bacterial growth in mice [24]. There is also continued interest in the role that Bortezomib cell line CD4+ Treg cells may play in preventing clearance of H. pylori. Protection from infection in mice immunized with attenuated Salmonella enterica Typhimurium expressing UreA and UreB was selleckchem associated with increased numbers of CD4+ T cells and neutrophils in the gastric compartment, as well as a decrease in Treg cells, though the latter did not reach statistical significance [71]. Immunization was also shown to enhance M1 polarization of macrophages, which probably does not play a role in clearance of H. pylori and may in fact promote gastric pathology [72]. In conclusion, vaccination with a wide range of antigens, adjuvants,

and delivery routes can produce statistically significant reductions in H. pylori check details colonization levels in mice, though rarely sterilizing immunity. Whether similar reductions in bacterial load can be achieved in humans, and whether they would be clinically significant, is still unclear. Finally, a successful vaccine will likely face intense safety scrutiny, as evidenced by the withdrawal from the market of the first-generation vaccines against rotavirus and Lyme disease. However, progress is being made in using genomic approaches to identify novel antigens and in understanding the role of Th1, Th17, and most recently Treg cells in protection from H. pylori infection.

Research in the authors’ laboratories is supported by grants from the Cancer League of the Canton of Zurich and the Swiss National Science Foundation to AM and from the National Institutes of Health to JVS (AI081037, AI070803, AI086597, and CA136647). The authors have declared no conflicts of interest. “
“Background:  The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Western populations has steadily decreased. This has been suggested as one of the factors involved in the recent increase of asthma and allergy. Some studies have reported a negative association between H. pylori and asthma and allergy, but data are inconsistent and there are a few studies in children. Aim:  We investigated whether the prevalence of H. pylori was associated with asthma symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in childhood. Methods:  We determined IgG anti-H.

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