” To qualify for Jaspers’ criteria for psychosis,26 the pathologi

” To qualify for Jaspers’ criteria for psychosis,26 the pathological process displayed in a FHPI chemical structure patient’s case history has to be sufficiently strong to override normal development,

displayed in the life history; and the patient’s behavior has to be sufficiently different that it cannot be understood as an extension of the normal or as an exaggerated response to ordinary experience. Jaspers’26 conceptual framework was adopted by Kurt Schneider28 in his rudimentary classification in which psychoses, ie, the effects of illness, were separated from the abnormal variations of psychic life, ie, anomalies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of development, which might become manifest in abnormal intellectual endowment, abnormal personality, or abnormal psychic reactions. Schneider28 defined psychoses as diseases with psychic symptomatology and somatic etiology, and divided psychoses into somatically determined Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical psychoses, cyclothymia (the term he used for Kraepelin’s21 manic depressive insanity), and schizophrenia,29 a term he retained in spite of his belief that “there is nothing to which one could point as a common element in all the clinical pictures” subsumed under this diagnostic category. Sociomedical concept of psychosis Jaspers’26 concept of psychosis as a disease was transformed into a sociomedical concept by Fish30 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with consideration that the characteristic

features of psychosis include psychopathological manifestations, such as lack of insight, distortion of the whole personality by the illness, construction of a false environment out of subjective experiences, and gross disorder of basic drives, including self-preservation, coupled with an inability to make a reasonable social adjustment. The interaction between psychopathology Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and social adjustment was further

elaborated in the Diagnostic Criteria, for Research (DCR) Budapest-Nashville,31 in which psychosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was defined as a nonspecific syndrome characterized by lack of insight and psychopathological symptoms of sufficient severity to disrupt everyday functioning with collapse of the customary social life, which may call for psychiatric hospitalization. In the DCR, psychosis is the nadir in the process of psychiatric illness, the point at which the patient’s case history (ie, pathological process) displayed in psychopathological symptoms, such as hallucinations or autism, becomes dominant over the patient’s 4��8C life history (ie, normal development). During psychosis, there is a forced withdrawal from everyday life, accompanied by a tendency to suspend social adjustment, and during the period of hospitalization, social adjustment may collapse to the extent that it may not be possible to assess social adjustment at all. Without encountering such a nadir at least once in the course of the illness, the prerequisite for a DCR diagnosis of psychosis is not fulfilled.

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