Two-thirds of patients had coronary disease, one-third had periph

Two-thirds of patients had coronary disease, one-third had peripheral vascular disease and one quarter had cerebrovascular disease while 70% had some form of vascular disease. An appreciable number of elderly patients (46%) commenced dialysis without permanent access and approximately one-third commenced RRT less than 3 months after nephrologist review. Patients Angiogenesis inhibitor on non-dialysis pathways tend to be older,[9, 10] with more functional impairment11 and social isolation[11] but these studies to date are not derived from an Australasian cohort. Elderly ESKD patients who commence

dialysis have considerable mortality. An Australasian study showed 1-year survival of 77%, 2-year survival of 59% and 3-year survival of 45%.[8] Survival of elderly ESKD patients on a non-dialysis pathway is difficult to estimate because of lack of data. Survival without dialysis may be between 9 and 22 months. From ANZDATA and other international registry data, we have accurate information

on the overall survival from the point of learn more initiating dialysis within a given age group. It is clear that elderly patients on dialysis have a substantial decrease in actuarial survival compared with the age matched population.[8] The survival of Australasian elderly dialysis patients was as detailed above and was markedly less than the actuarial survival of a similarly aged person not requiring dialysis[12] as shown in Figure 1. These findings have been echoed in publications from other large international registry databases.[1, 13] In a US Renal Data System (USRDS)-based study looking at outcomes of all nursing home residents in the USA following initiation of dialysis, the authors reported mortality rates of 24% in the first 3 months after dialysis initiation and 58% at 12 months.[14] Survival on a non-dialysis pathway is more difficult to determine as there have been few studies, each containing small numbers of patients (Fig.  2). Some studies have reported outcomes on patients of all ages while others have focused on the elderly and the studies

have used different points from which to measure survival, ranging from an epidermal growth factor receptor (eGFR) of 10 or 15 or a putative dialysis date. The reported survival varies between Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) 6 and 23 months in studies with patients of all ages and 9 and 22 months in studies in the elderly. This lack of evidence and variation in mortality makes it difficult for nephrologists to draw conclusions regarding survival on a non-dialysis pathway. Another thing to consider is that the most of these studies were conducted on the UK where practice patterns and characteristics of patients may be different from Australasia. Predictors of survival for elderly patients on dialysis include age, comorbidity score, malnutrition, poor functional status and late referral.

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