We conclude that probably both mechanisms have contributed to the

We conclude that probably both mechanisms have contributed to the evolution and maintenance of the long neck, and their relative importance can be clarified further. “
“Lizards are appropriate organisms to investigate causes and correlates of communal egg laying because their general lack of parental care focuses attention on nest site choice. We field-tested hypotheses associated with nest site choice and communal

egg laying in the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata, in south-eastern Australia. Specifically, we predicted that lizards would nest at sites with lower openness and solar radiation than random sites, but within crevices with higher humidity than random Dabrafenib mw crevices. However, we predicted that these environmental factors would not differ between communal and solitary nest sites (based on previous research), but

that egg mortality in communal nests would be higher than that in solitary nests due to conspecific interference. Despite being ground dwellers, skinks in this population nested above the ground level in narrow horizontal crevices within vertical faces of sandstone outcrops. At the broadest scale, skinks nested at sites with significantly lower FK228 solubility dmso canopy openness and incident (solar) radiation than random sites, while at the smallest scale, skinks nested in crevices with significantly higher relative humidity than potential nest crevices. Humidity averaged 94% in nest sites, and nesting females did Elongation factor 2 kinase not trade-off humidity for temperature, despite an inverse relationship between

the two at potential nest sites. Of 60 nests, about half to two-thirds were communal. Communal nest sites did not differ from solitary nest sites with respect to temperature, humidity, rock size, aspect, height of crevice above ground, or crevice dimensions. Eggs from communal nests were three times more likely to desiccate and perish than eggs from solitary nests, a clear cost of communal nesting. Desiccation was caused by eggs being displaced from their original positions within the crevices, possibly by conspecific gravid females. “
“Although many carnivores are of conservation concern, most are poorly studied. The maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus Illiger, 1811 is the largest South American canid with a broad distribution; however, the largest portion of its range is in the Brazilian Cerrado savannah, where due to intensive agricultural expansion, it is threatened by habitat loss. Maned wolf population trends are virtually unknown. We analyzed radio telemetry data from a 13-year study in Emas National Park, central Brazil, with Burnham’s live recapture/dead recovery models in the program MARK to obtain the first analytically sound estimate of the apparent maned wolf survival rate. We constructed 16 candidate models including variation in survival rate and resighting probability associated with an individual’s sex or age and year of study.

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