[14] numerically simulated natural convection in a triangular enclosure and studied the behavior of natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square cavity, described a study on natural convection of a heat source embedded in the bottom wall of an enclosure, and used the SIMPLE algorithm to solve the governing equation. Kargar et al. [15] used computational fluid dynamics and an artificial neural network to investigate the cooling performance of two electronic components in an enclosure. Abu-Nada et al. [16]

investigated the effect of variable properties on natural convection in enclosures filled with nanofluid, and the governing equations are solved by an efficient finite-volume method. Hwang et al. [17] investigated selective HDAC inhibitors the thermal characteristics of natural convection in a rectangular cavity heated from below by Jang and Choi’s model [18]. The Lattice Boltzmann method is a new way to investigate natural convection. Compared with the above traditional methods, the Lattice Boltzmann method has many merits including that boundary

conditions can be conveniently dealt with, the transform between macroscopic and microscopic equations is easily achieved, the details of the fluid can be presented, and so on. In addition, nanofluid as the media can enhance heat transfer due to factors such as nanofluids having higher thermal conductivity and the nanoparticles in the fluid disturbing the laminar flow. Therefore, many researchers undertook investigations

Selleckchem C188-9 on the natural convection of nanofluids by the Lattice Boltzmann method. Barrios et al. [19] developed a Lattice Boltzmann model and applied it to investigate the natural convection of an enclosure with a partially heated left wall. Peng et al. [20] presented a simple a Lattice Boltzmann model without considering thermal diffusion, and this model is easily applied because it does not contain a gradient term. He et al. [21] proposed a new Lattice Boltzmann model which introduced an internal energy distribution function to simulate the click here temperature field, and the result has a good agreement not with the benchmark solution. Nemati et al. [22] simulated the natural convection of a lid-driven flow filled with Cu-water, CuO-water, and Al2O3-water nanofluids and discussed the effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynolds number on the heat transfer. Wang et al. [23] presented a Lattice Boltzmann algorithm to simulate the heat transfer of a fluid-solid fluid, and the result has a satisfactory agreement with the published data. Dixit et al. [24] applied the Lattice Boltzmann method to investigate the natural convection of a square cavity at high Rayleigh numbers. Peng et al. [25] developed a 3D incompressible thermal Lattice Boltzmann model for natural convection in a cubic cavity. The above Lattice Boltzmann methods are all single-phase models, and the nanofluid was seen as a single-phase fluid without considering the interaction forces between nanoparticles and water.