, 2008; Vardanyan & Trchounian, 2010) En hirae membrane vesicle

, 2008; Vardanyan & Trchounian, 2010). En. hirae membrane vesicles were isolated according to Poladyan & Trchounian (2006) and Vardanyan & Trchounian (2010). A bacterial suspension with thickness of ~ 1 mm was exposed to EMI using a model G4-141 generator with conical antenna (State Scientific-Production Enterprise ‘Istok’, Fryazino, Moscow Region, Russia) as described (Tadevosyan et al., 2007, 2008; Ohanyan et al., 2008; Tadevosyan & Trchounian, 2009; Torgomyan & Trchounian, 2011; Torgomyan et al., 2011a, b). The frequency stability of the generator

in continuous wave mode was up to 20 MHz; selleck chemicals llc the amplitude-modulation frequency was 1 Hz. The distance from the radiating end of the conical antenna to the object of irradiation was ~ 20 cm (the far zone), which provided an equal distribution of power to the exposed sample. For this distance, the power flux density measured was 0.06 mW cm−2. The power reflected to the waveguide system was ~ 30%. Exposure duration was 1 h (Ohanyan et al., 2008). In the control, bacteria were held for 1 h and then subjected to appropriate growth and assays but without exposure to EMI. After irradiation, Epacadostat datasheet the bacterial suspension was

transferred to fresh growth medium (diluted in 1 : 100) or was subjected to assays. It should be noted that EMI effects were almost the same for different concentrations of exposed bacterial cells (Torgomyan & Trchounian, 2011; Torgomyan et al., 2011a). Transfer of H+ and K+ through the bacterial membranes of whole cells were determined based on changes of their activity in external medium, using appropriate selective electrodes (HANNA Instruments, Portugal; Cole Parmer Instruments Co.) (Trchounian et al.,

2001; Poladyan & Trchounian, 2011; Torgomyan et al., 2011b). Cells (irradiated or not) were transferred to assay buffer (150 mM Tris-phosphate buffer, pH 8.0; containing 0.4 mM MgSO4, 1 mM KCl and 1 mM NaCl) for which H+ and K+ fluxes were PAK5 determined. Corrections for energy (glucose)-dependent ions fluxes were made for cells without and with supplementary glucose. Electrode readings in millivolts were outputted automatically by the LabView program (National Instruments Co.). Electrode calibrations were done by titration with 0.01 M HCl and 0.02 mM KCl. Ion fluxes were expressed as the changes in external activity of the ion (mM min−1) per number of cells in a unit of medium volume (mL). The latter (titre) was determined by counting the number of colonies formed in ~ 18–22 h after plating with diluted bacterial suspension on solid nutrient medium. ATPase activity of membrane vesicles was determined in assay buffer (50 mM Tris-Cl buffer, pH 8.0; containing 2.5 mM MgSO4 and 100 mM KCl). Measurements of activity were based on released inorganic phosphate (Pinorg) in the reaction of vesicles with 3 mM ATP.

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