[2,10] Certification can be defined as ‘the process by which a no

[2,10] Certification can be defined as ‘the process by which a non-governmental agency or association grants recognition to an individual who has met certain predetermined qualifications specified by that agency or association’.[10] There are currently two nationally recognized pharmacy technician certification exams, both of which are accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies.[11] Certification of pharmacy technicians itself was pioneered in Michigan. In 1981, the Michigan Pharmacists Association established an exam-based certification

programme for pharmacy technicians, with the Illinois Council of Hospital Pharmacists following suit 6 years later. It was not until 1995 that the PTCB was jointly created. It continues to be governed by the ASHP, the APhA,

the Illinois Council of Health-System Pharmacists and the Michigan Pharmacists Association and produces a national certification for pharmacy technicians.[35] To successfully ubiquitin-Proteasome degradation complete the requirements for certification, pharmacy technicians must demonstrate a core level of knowledge.[21] The title Certified Pharmacy Technician (or CPhT) remains the only national credential available to technicians. Certification is usually voluntary, although there BIBW2992 price are some state boards that require it. For example, Louisiana, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wyoming require certification in order for a technician to be registered or licensed. The Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam (PTCE) is based on its own task analysis that

defines the work of pharmacy technicians nationwide: 64% is based on knowledge required to assist the pharmacist in serving patients, 25% involves knowledge of medication distribution and inventory control and 11% involves administration and management of the pharmacy.[37] Since 1995, over 345 000 technicians have been certified.[11,38] Certified technicians must renew their certification every 2 years and complete at least 20 h of pharmacy-related continuing education credits (including 1 hour of pharmacy law) during that time.[21] Currently, there are 40 states that have regulations for pharmacy technicians through licensure, registration or certification. The PTCE is now included in technician statutes Farnesyltransferase and regulations in 28 states as either a requirement or an option in meeting state-specific requirements for registration or licensure.[10,33] The PTCB guarantees a national standard for those that pass the 2-h, 90-question, computer-based exam. The $129 exam is offered continuously throughout the year and provides test-takers with immediate pass/fail results.[39] A second type of pharmacy technician certification exam, the Exam for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ExCPT), has been created by the Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians, which is a for-profit corporation which is a part of the National Healthcareer Association.

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