coli [22], the enzyme that introduces the cis double bond of the

coli [22], the enzyme that introduces the cis double bond of the unsaturated fatty acids remains unknown. Like other Clostridia the C.acetobutylicium genome encodes none of the three known anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathways denoted by the presence of genes encoding FabM, FabA or FabN proteins. One possibility was

that the single FabZ of this bacterium could somehow partition acyl chains between the saturated and unsaturated branches of the pathway. MX69 solubility dmso However, our in vivo and in vitro data show that C. acetobutylicium FabZ cannot synthesize the first intermediate in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Hence, Clostridia must contain a novel enzyme that introduces the cis double bond. Note that the proposed isomerase activity of the C. acetobutylicium FabZ was not unreasonable. C. acetobutylicium FabZ shares 51.4 and 59.3% identical residues with E. faecalis FabN and FabZ, 4SC-202 purchase respectively, and there is no sequence signature that denotes isomerase ability [9, 23, 24]. This is because the isomerase potential of 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratases is not determined by the catalytic machinery at the active site but rather by the β-sheets that dictate the orientation of the central α-helix and thus the shape of the substrate binding tunnel [23, 24]. We are currently seeking the gene(s) that encode the enzyme responsible for cis double bond introduction in C. acetobutylicium. In contrast

HDAC inhibitor to FabZ, the single 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (FabF) of this bacterium performs the elongation functions required in both branches of the Baricitinib fatty acid synthetic pathway. This protein can both elongate palmitoleoyl-ACP to cis-vaccenoyl-ACP as does FabF in E. coli and also elongates the cis double bond containing product of FabA as does E. coli FabB. However, C. acetobutylicium FabF, was unable to perform the two tasks simultaneously and thus differs from Enterococcus faecalis FabO [9]. Although the C. acetobutylicium FabF and E. faecalis FabO proteins are 45–46%

identical to E. coli FabF, they are only 55% identical to one another. Hence, each of the three proteins is distinct from the other two. The finding that C. acetobutylicium FabF was unable to perform the two tasks simultaneously could be due to the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of FabF1 and to the enzyme undergoing a type of kinetic confusion in this unnatural setting. Perhaps the intermediates of one branch of the pathway act (in effect) as inhibitors of the other branch. In this scenario the presence of the E. coli enzyme (either FabB or FabF) would result in the inhibitory intermediates being converted to long chain acyl chains, thereby freeing the C. acetobutylicium FabF to operate in the other branch. The complex task faced by FabF1 upon expression in an E. coli strain lacking both FabB and FabF is illustrated by the effects of overproduction of FabA and FabB in E. coli [25].

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