Only 7 of the 72 A. cryaerophilus strains in this study were characterized previously at the Selleck BAY 80-6946 subgroup level by either AFLP or whole protein profiling [see additional file 2 - Table S2]. However, the subgroup identities of these strains did not correlate well with the MLST groups. Considering these results, it is possible GF120918 purchase that the cryaerophilus subgroups identified by Vandamme et al.  are not analogous to the MLST groups identified here, although additional investigations will be
necessary to resolve this issue. Figure 2 Condensed dendrogram of unique Arcobacter STs. For each unique ST, the profile allele sequences were extracted and concatenated. The concatenated allele sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL X (ver. 2.0.5). The dendrogram was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm and the Kimura two-parameter BIBF 1120 mouse distance estimation method. Bootstrap values of >75%, generated from 500 replicates, are shown at the nodes. The scale bar represents substitutions per site. The tree is rooted to C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168. The A. halophilus strain LA31B concatenated sequence was extracted from the draft A. halophilus genome. ‘Group 1′ A. cryaerophilus sequence types include: ST-209, ST-220, ST-221, ST-231, ST-232 and ST-270. The Arcobacter glyA1 and glyA2 loci As described above, Arcobacter strains contain two unlinked glyA genes in their
genomes. The ada-linked glyA2 alleles are less discriminatory than
the lysS-linked glyA1 alleles: incorporation of glyA2 into the typing scheme in tetracosactide place of glyA1 would result in 197 STs for A butzleri, instead of 208, and 58 STs for A. cryaerophilus, instead of 59. Therefore, this reduced level of discrimination was one of the reasons why the ada-linked glyA2 locus was not incorporated into the Arcobacter MLST method. Additionally, inclusion of both glyA loci in the Arcobacter MLST method, thus creating an eight-locus typing scheme, would not increase significantly the discriminatory power of the seven locus method. A large number of STs contain different glyA1 and glyA2 alleles: for example, the A. butzleri genome sequence strain RM4018 contains the glyA-1 allele at the glyA1 locus and glyA-142 at the glyA2 locus [see additional file 2 - Table S2]. The presence of two highly-similar glyA loci is an unusual feature of the Arcobacter genomes and multiple copy genes are not generally members of MLST schemes. However, the data suggest that despite the presence of two glyA loci within every strain, the Arcobacter glyA loci are remarkably stable. There is no compelling evidence in this study (with the possible exception of ST-240) of gene conversion events between the two glyA genes (manifesting as the presence of both identical and different glyA1/glyA2 alleles within an ST), and only one putative lateral transfer event was identified at glyA.