However, at this stage, we can only hypothesize what the function

However, at this stage, we can only hypothesize what the functional implications of the extracytoplasmic location of LuxS, as revealed in this study, could be. A kind of shuttling mechanism between cytoplasm and periplasm might occur to regulate the amount of active LuxS. This might be linked to a Ivacaftor in vivo posttranslational modification occurring outside the cytoplasmic space when substrate is unavailable. Conclusion A 2D-DIGE experiment comparing a luxS

mutant, unable to synthesize the quorum sensing signal AI-2, with wildtype S. Typhimurium did not reveal many differences on the proteome level. Nevertheless, two separate forms of LuxS with similar molecular weights but differing isoelectric points were identified. Based on this result, we focused specifically on LuxS. Here, Rabusertib manufacturer we show that in S. Typhimurium, LuxS is partly posttranslationally modified involving a conserved cysteine residue and occurs at both sides of the cytoplasmic membrane. This research emphasizes the strength of high-throughput gel-based proteome analysis for getting new insights in posttranslational protein regulation. At this stage we do not know whether membrane translocation

and posttranslational Selleck EPZ5676 modification are coupled and how these processes are related to AI-2 signaling. Nevertheless, these insights feed challenging research on LuxS-based quorum sensing in S. Typhimurium and possibly even other bacterial species. Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions All strains and plasmids that were used in this study are listed in Table 2. Salmonella

Typhimurium SL1344 is the wildtype strain [44]. For the 2D-DIGE analysis, Salmonella strains were grown under in vivo mimicking conditions. Growth monitoring during 48 h revealed that all strains grow very much alike under the conditions tested. The luxS mutant is unable to produce AI-2 due to the lack of a crucial enzyme in the AI-2 synthesis pathway. An overnight preculture in 5 ml Luria-Bertani broth (LB) medium supplemented with 0.5% glucose was diluted 1:100 in 100 ml LB medium with 0.5% glucose, flushed Morin Hydrate with a gas mixture of 97% N2 and 3% O2 during 15 minutes prior to inoculation and sealed air-tight with a rubber cap to mimic the low oxygen concentration known to induce expression of Salmonella invasion proteins [45]. The cultures were incubated non-shaking at 37°C for 5 h. In all validation experiments, Salmonella strains were grown with aeration at 37°C in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) medium [46]. Antibiotics were applied at the following concentrations: 25 μg/ml chloramphenicol (for plasmids based on pAYC184) and 100 μg/ml ampicillin (for plasmids based on pFAJ1708). For the determination of the MIC of ampicillin, variable concentrations of ampicillin were used (serial diluted twofold from 100 μg ml-1 to 3.125 μg ml-1) [47]. Synthetic DPD (Omm Scientific Inc.

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