Importantly, the antibody disrupted the interaction between A56/K2 and the EFC without disrupting the A56-K2 interaction itself. Thus, we have shown that A56/K2 is sufficient to prevent virus entry and fusion as well as formation of syncytia through interaction with the EFC.”
vectors deliver antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, but they do not trigger DC maturation. We therefore expressed a viral protein that constitutively activates NF-kappa B, vFLIP JNK-IN-8 from Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in a lentivector to mature DCs. vFLIP activated NF-kappa B in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro and matured these DCs to a similar extent as lipopolysaccharide; costimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, and ICAM-1 were upregulated and tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-12 secreted. The vFLIP-expressing Tideglusib cost lentivector also matured DCs in vivo. When we coexpressed
vFLIP in a lentivector with ovalbumin (Ova), we found an increased immune response to Ova; up to 10 times more Ova-specific CD8(+) T cells secreting gamma interferon were detected in the spleens of vFLIP_Ova-immunized mice than in the spleens of mice immunized with GFP_Ova. Furthermore, this increased CD8(+) T-cell response correlated with improved tumor-free survival in a tumor therapy model. A single immunization with vFLIP_Ova also reduced the parasite load when mice were challenged with OVA-Leishmania donovani. In conclusion, vFLIP from KSHV is a DC activator, maturing DCs in vitro and in vivo. This demonstrates that NF-kappa B activation is sufficient to induce many aspects of DC maturation and that expression of a constitutive NF-kappa B activator can improve the efficacy of a vaccine vector.”
“Poxviruses such as virulent vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve encode a broad range of immune modulators
that interfere with host responses to infection. Upon more than 570 in vitro passages in chicken to embryo fibroblasts (CEF), chorioallantois VACV Ankara (CVA) accumulated mutations that resulted in highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). MVA infection of mice and of dendritic cells (DC) induced significant type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas infection with VACV alone or in combination with MVA did not. These results implied that VACV expressed an IFN inhibitor(s) that was functionally deleted in MVA. To further characterize the IFN inhibitor(s), infection experiments were carried out with CVA strains isolated after 152 (CVA152) and 386 CEF passages (CVA386). Interestingly, neither CVA152 nor CVA386 induced IFN-alpha, whereas the latter variant did induce IFN-beta. This pattern suggested a consecutive loss of inhibitors during MVA attenuation. Similar to supernatants of VACV- and CVA152-infected DC cultures, recombinantly expressed soluble IFN decoy receptor B18, which is encoded in the VACV genome, inhibited MVA-induced IFN-alpha but not IFN-beta.