The animals were exposed to psychosocial stress for 35 days and c

The animals were exposed to psychosocial stress for 35 days and concomitant daily fluoxetine treatment (10

mg/kg for rats and 15 mg/kg for tree shrews) after the first week of stress. The results confirmed a major role for hippocampal and hypothalamic NPY system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Although there were no evident differences between rat and tree shrew in the NPY system distribution, an opposite effect of chronic psychosocial stress was observed in the two species. Moreover, chronic antidepressant treatment was able to counteract the effects of stress and restored basal expression levels, suggesting the utility of these paradigms as preclinical models of stress-induced depression. Overall, Bromosporine datasheet although evident species differences were found in response to chronic psychosocial stress, the present study suggests a role for NPY receptors in the stress response and in the action of antidepressant drugs, providing further support for an involvement of this neuropeptidergic system in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

Ondansetron is frequently used

to treat nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, but the safety of this drug for the fetus has not been well studied.


We investigated the risk of adverse fetal outcomes associated with ondansetron administered during pregnancy. From a historical cohort of 608,385 pregnancies in Denmark, women who were exposed selleck chemicals llc to ondansetron and those who were not exposed were included, in a 1: 4 ratio, in propensity-score-matched analyses of spontaneous abortion (1849 exposed women vs. 7396 unexposed women), stillbirth (1915 vs. 7660), any major birth defect (1233 vs. 4932), preterm delivery (1792 vs. 7168), and birth of infants at low birth weight and small for gestational age (1784 vs. 7136). In addition, estimates were adjusted for hospitalization for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (as a proxy for severity) and the use of other antiemetics.


Receipt of ondansetron was not associated with a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion, which occurred in 1.1% of exposed

women and 3.7% of unexposed women during gestational weeks 7 to 12 (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.91) and in 1.0% and 2.1%, respectively, during weeks 13 to 22 (hazard PF477736 ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.21). Ondansetron also conferred no significantly increased risk of stillbirth (0.3% for exposed women and 0.4% for unexposed women; hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.73), any major birth defect (2.9% and 2.9%, respectively; prevalence odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.82), preterm delivery (6.2% and 5.2%; prevalence odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.25), delivery of a low-birth-weight infant (4.1% and 3.7%; prevalence odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.13), or delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant (10.4% and 9.2%; prevalence odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.44).

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