AM but not BG was impaired in figural learning and memory, as sho

AM but not BG was impaired in figural learning and memory, as shown in the Complex Figure Test (Osterrieth, 1944) and the DCS (Weidlich & Lamberti, 2001). In behavioural experiments, BG was impaired in free verbal recognition of fearful faces, and in startle potentiation by threat-related scenes, and had a reduced Metformin order social network compared to control participants, while all these functions were intact

in AM (Becker et al., 2012). Further, both twins showed reduced anterograde and retrograde interference of emotional pictures on memory (Hurlemann et al., 2007). On the other hand, the aforementioned neuropsychological assessment (Talmi et al., 2010) revealed average intelligence (L-P-S Leistungsprüfsystem) (Horn, 1983) and intact verbal learning and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test) (Helmstedter, Lendt, & Lux, 1981) as well as executive

RAD001 ic50 function measured with the Trail Making Test (Reitan, 1955), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Kongs, Thompson, Iversion, & Heaton, 2000), Stroop test (Bäumler, 1985), and semantic fluency (Aschenbrenner et al., 2000). The twins show neither depression nor anxiety (Hamilton, 1959 and Hamilton, 1960). Further, both twins were unimpaired in rapid detection of negative-arousing words (Bach, Talmi, Hurlemann, Patin, & Dolan, 2011), forced-choice recognition of emotional expression in prosody (Bach, Hurlemann, & Dolan, 2013), and framing effects on economic gambles (Talmi et al., 2010). Given the amygdala damage in AM and BG, and the posited function of the amygdala in prioritising threat information, we hypothesised a reduced angry face advantage in the FITC task in AM and BG, compared to healthy individuals. The task followed a 3 (set size: 1/6/12 items) × 2 (target emotion: angry/happy) × 2

(target absent/present) factorial design with RT as dependent variable. Some previous studies have only analysed slopes of a serial search model. Here, because we did not know whether Urbach–Wiethe patients use a serial search strategy, we analyse both raw RTs and search slopes Rutecarpine as dependent variables. AM (previously also labelled patient 1) and BG (patient 2) (Becker et al., 2012), aged 35 years at the time of the present experiment, are monozygous twins with congenital Urbach–Wiethe syndrome due to a de novo mutation (Becker et al., 2012). The calcified volumes on high-resolution computer assisted tomography images included the whole basolateral amygdala and most other amygdala nuclei, only sparing anterior amygdaloid and ventral cortical amygdaloid parts at an anterior level, as well as lateral and medial parts of the central amygdaloid nucleus and the amygdalo-hippocampal area at posterior levels. Control participants were included if they were females between the age of 29 and 41 years, and the final sample comprised 16 healthy females with an age of 33.6 ± 3.4 years.

Gene 1-FEH-A was associated with grain yield, and 1-FEH-B was ass

Gene 1-FEH-A was associated with grain yield, and 1-FEH-B was associated with thousand kernel weight and test weight [10]. In sunflower, HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance [11]. In waxy rice, Xu et al. [12] associated starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SSII-3) and SSI with starch properties. As these examples illustrate, AM is useful for dissecting

this website candidate genes underlying complex traits. In cotton, some AM studies have been reported [5], [13], [14], [15] and [16], but these were all genome wide association studies (GWAS) rather than candidate gene association studies. Expansin refers to a family of closely related non-enzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in

plant cell growth, emergence of root hairs, meristem function, and other developmental processes in which cell wall loosening occurs. The elongation of cotton fiber is associated with the expression of many genes, among which Expansin is one of the most highly expressed [17], [18] and [19]. That Expansin may control buy APO866 fiber development is of interest in strategies aimed at improving fiber quality, because final fiber length and strength largely determine the quality of commercial cotton thread. Given that Expansins play a pivotal role in cell wall extension, they are attractive targets for strategies designed to alter cell shape and size, and this consideration led us to characterize some of the genes that encode Expansins in Gossypium. Six cDNAs encoding α-expansins were identified in a previous study of cotton fiber development [18]. RT-PCR expression

analysis showed that the mRNA from GhExp2 was specific to cotton fibers, where it was the second most abundant transcript (at a low level) during the elongation phase of fiber development [18]. Intron and exon sizes of GhExp2 were all different from those of the other five genes. In GhExp2, a Cys → Arg substitution at the first Cys [a residue conserved in most α-expansins previously described [20]] was found, and the Phe [which commonly is contained in a His-Phe-Asp (HFD) domain] residue had been replaced by Lys. But, the amino acid sequence RVX-208 derived from GhExp2 was most closely related (with 97% sequence identity) to that from GhExp1, which may play an important role in cell wall extension during fiber development [18]. It is still unclear whether the nucleotide diversity of GhExp2 is associated with phenotypic variation. After sequence alignment of six genes (GhExp1–GhExp6) and AY189969 (expansin mRNA), gene-specific primers were designed to amplify only Exp2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nucleotide and haplotype diversity and the extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the Exp2 gene, and then to validate the association between Exp2 and fiber quality by AM, and identify the most favorable allele of Exp2, with the aim of providing knowledge for future fiber quality breeding efforts in cotton.

Observers were situated 1 5 m from each focal trial, and ants wer

Observers were situated 1.5 m from each focal trial, and ants were recorded during 5-min long watching periods (hereafter ‘censuses’) throughout daytime when possible (09:00–20:00; one census per hour and trial). A total of 810 min of censuses were conducted (162 censuses in total). We recorded ant identity, number of visits and activity (pass or touch and antennae movement). An ant was considered to have made a choice if it stayed at least 10 s over the mesh. We performed the behavioural experiments in flowering populations, so that ants responding

to the natural and synthetic scents could have visited Cytinus before and could have been scent-experienced. However, we cannot rule out that at least some of the responding ants were Cytinus-naïve and the response Navitoclax supplier to the scents was innate. We additionally recorded the presence of all ant taxa that were active in the study populations but did not attend Cytinus natural inflorescences or the biotest. In a second field-based two-choice experiment, the three EAD-active and main synthetic compounds identical to those present in Cytinus flowers ((E)-cinnamyl alcohol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 4-oxoisophorone, diluted in paraffin at 0.5 × 10−2; see Results) and a mixture of them (1:1:1 diluted in paraffin, at overall 0.5 × 10−3; Uvasol, Merck, Germany) were offered in the field

BIBF 1120 purchase to ants. The experiment was designed to address whether volatile compounds trigger not only electrophysiological responses (see Results) but also behavioural responses in pollinators. Thiamine-diphosphate kinase Given that the flowers of CytinusP and CytinusY showed similar scent compounds (see Results), this experiment exploring the attractiveness of synthetic compounds was conducted only in one CytinusY population (CY2) during the flowering period. Each trial consisted of

placing two 12 × 5 mm paper wicks (Whatman17MM) 7 cm apart on 12 cm × 4 cm paperboard sheets on the ground. Twenty microliters of each individual compound or their mixture were pipetted onto one wick, and paired with a control wick to which 20 μL of paraffin was added. The first census was done 5 min after adding the compounds. Experimental trials were randomly placed at soil level in a natural Cytinus population as to provide access to any foraging insect species. We replicated 50 times the 1:1:1 mixture and (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, and 25 times 4-oxoisophorone and (E)-cinnamaldehyde. Volatile compounds were diluted in paraffin for obtaining concentrations similar to those found in plant scent. Paraffin oil is a mixture of n-alkanes frequently used as a release agent of the semiochemical to examine the attractiveness of the compounds to several insect groups ( Dötterl et al., 2006, Valterová et al., 2007, Verheggen et al., 2008 and Steenhuisen et al., 2013) including ants ( Junker and Blüthgen, 2008 and Junker et al., 2011b). Some particular cuticular hydrocarbons have important communicative functions in ants ( Lucas et al., 2005 and Martin et al., 2008).

Die Körnerzellschicht liegt am tiefsten und enthält eine außerord

Die Körnerzellschicht liegt am tiefsten und enthält eine außerordentlich große selleck chemicals llc Anzahl an dicht gepackten Interneuronen, die sogenannten Körnerzellen.

Die Purkinje-Zellschicht besteht aus einer einzigen Schicht von Zellkörpern von Purkinje-Zellen. Die Molekularschicht enthält unmyelinisierte Axone in hoher Dichte, die als Parallelfasern bezeichnet werden. Die Purkinje-Zellen werden als einer der ersten Neuronentypen in der Kleinhirnplatte gebildet, während die Körnerzellen aus der äußeren Keimschicht entstehen. Die Körnerzellen wandern zunächst durch die Molekularschicht, dann durch die Purkinje-Zellschicht bis in ihre endgültige Position im erwachsenen Gehirn und bilden die innere Körnerzellschicht. Informationen erreichen die Purkinje-Zellen über die Körnerzellen, wobei die Axone der Körnerzellen, also die Parallelfasern in der Molekularschicht, auf den Dendritendornen der Purkinje-Zellen exzitatorische Synapsen ausbilden. Die Dichte

der Körnerzellen ERK signaling inhibitor liegt bei etwa 80 Zellen pro 0,1 mm3. Die Zellen sind extrem klein (4-6 μm Durchmesser) und es finden sich selten Astrozyten in ihrer Nachbarschaft. Das Verhältnis zwischen Kern- und Zytoplasmavolumen in diesen Zellen ist hoch. Die Gesamtzahl der Körnerzellen beträgt 9,2 x 107[172] and [173], die Anzahl der Purkinje-Zellen liegt zwischen 2,78 x 105[172] und 5,5x 105[174]. Darüber hinaus wurde berichtet, dass auf jede Purkinje-Zelle etwa 274 Körnerzellen kommen [175]. Körnerzellen sind kleiner, und ihr geringes

Zytoplasmavolumen könnte ein wichtiger Schlüssel zum Verständnis ihrer Vulnerabilität gegenüber MeHg-bedingter Schädigung sein. Dies bedeutet nämlich, dass es weniger Bindungsstellen für Quecksilber gibt, so dass bei einer Exposition die kritische MeHg-Konzentration im Bereich empfindlicher Stellen früher erreicht ist. Für die Zytoskelettproteine, insbesondere die Mikrotubuli, ist die Entfernung zwischen der äußeren Zellmembran und dem Kern sehr klein, und es kann spekuliert werden, dass selbst eine begrenzte Depolymerisierung der Mikrotubuli tiefgreifende Auswirkungen auf den Metabolismus der Zellen Meloxicam und die Aktivität der Mitochondrien hat. Während einer MeHg-Exposition besteht eine erhöhte Notwendigkeit, Proteine durch Proteinsynthese zu ersetzen. Dies wiederum erfordert eine effiziente Funktion der Mitochondrien bei gleichzeitiger Aufrechterhaltung der intrazellulären GSH-Balance. Dazu sind nicht nur bestimmte Enzyme nötig, sondern auch ein ausreichender intrazellulärer Gehalt an Selen, da einige dieser Enzyme Selenoproteine sind. Wie bereits betont wurde, hat Quecksilber eine deutlich höhere Affinität für Selen als für Schwefel, und es kann zu Situationen kommen, in denen Selen aus diesen Selenoproteinen extrahiert wird und stattdessen an Quecksilber bindet.

Currently, if a research or clinical study requires both PET and

Currently, if a research or clinical study requires both PET and MRI data, the patient must endure two exams in confining scanners, which is problematic for patients who suffer

from even mild claustrophobia. This duplication not only increases the discomfort (both physical and psychological) the patient must endure, but also effectively doubles the chances of motion during one or both scans with the subsequent need to rescan particular sequences or even the entire study. In light of the discussion in the previous section if, as some studies suggest, there is an added diagnostic benefit to combing PET and MRI, then it is of great import to minimize the difficulties associated with acquiring both data sets. The problem of patient anxiety and discomfort is a well-known phenomenon extending back (at least) mTOR inhibitor to the first few years after the widespread introduction of clinical MRI [86], [87], [88] and [89]. A review of the topic shows that as many as 37%

(range: 4%–-37%) of patients undergoing MRI had an anxiety-related reaction to the procedure [90] and [91]. In one study, which found that approximately 14% of MRI patients required some form of sedation to tolerate a standard-of-care MRI, the use of sedation was actually more common in patients who had already had previous MRI exams, indicating that familiarity with the procedure may not reduce stress related to the procedure [92]. The problem of anxiety and discomfort Dichloromethane dehalogenase during imaging is not unique to MRI, as similar issues arise for PET examinations. learn more It has been noted that a patient that is stressed and fidgeting can have elevated FDG uptake in skeletal muscle, which may adversely affect tumor-to-muscle ratio measurements [93]. Additionally, there is a well-known anxiety-induced increase in FDG uptake in brown fat that has been linked to false-positive

interpretations in 2%–4% of all studies, as well as false-negative interpretations due to brown fat uptake masking lesion detectability [94], [95] and [96]. The problem is often exacerbated in pediatric patients where stress-induced muscle tension, crying and the associated coughing can yield increased muscle FDG uptake [97]; these issues are well known amongst technologists, and efforts have been made to address the particular issues surrounding pediatric PET studies [98]. A final, extremely practical, point to note is that a combined PET–MRI exam would preclude the patient from having to endure the (sometimes lengthy) periods in multiple waiting rooms waiting for their scans. As many of these patients are missing work and/or traveling from far distances to undergo their testing, a combined exam would undoubtedly enhance their experience and make it more tolerable. For the cancer patient who already may not have a great deal of strength to attend these imaging tests, eliminating one set of waiting rooms and preps would be greatly appreciated.

, 2012) The

, 2012). The this website high diversity, widespread occurrence and relative sensitivity make foraminifera good bioindicator organisms to evaluate phytotoxic stress on coral reefs. Further up the food chain, the exposure of juveniles of the tropical reef fish Acanthochromis to the insecticide

chlorpyrifos resulted in elevated oxidative stress biomarkers in liver tissue ( Botté et al., 2012). This set of papers illustrates clearly that on-going exposure to pollutants, particularly herbicides, can affect GBR biota through a number of impact pathways. To prioritise management action for the GBR, managers require information from all aspects of the catchment to reef continuum including the studies described above. To date, a small number of studies have attempted to undertake a risk analysis of land-based pollutants to GBR ecosystems. Most recently, Waterhouse et al. (2012) completed a relative risk assessment of priority pollutants in the GBR catchments based on current pollutant loads, reef condition and estimates of the exposure of the reef to these pollutants. The Wet Tropics and Mackay Whitsunday regions, dominated by sugarcane cultivation, were considered as high risk areas due to high loads of pesticide and dissolved inorganic nitrogen

(DIN). The Burdekin and Fitzroy regions were ranked medium to high risk due to their suspended sediment inputs from grazing lands, and DIN and pesticide inputs from sugarcane farming in the lower Burdekin catchment. Early results of this research informed the selection of priority areas and priority land ERK inhibitor uses for a number of GBR management initiatives including the State government’s Reef Protection Package. In all, this Special Issue has brought together authors from several different research and management agencies, all working towards a sustainable and resilient reef. The role of research in guiding positive management outcomes for the iconic Great Barrier Reef depends on cross-agency see more communication,

engaged research users and robust collaborative research across the catchment to reef continuum. All these factors have been addressed in the selection of research papers in this Special Issue to provide a useful baseline upon which to build further ecosystem understanding and the continuous improvement of resource management and conservation efforts. “
“They lie in parallel rows, In an article in the Sunday Times on 13 June 2010, the journalist Charles Clover exhorted us to “Wake up, the mackerel war has started”! In the article, Clover pointed out that because the annual migration of the mackerel (Scomber scombrus) – our striped tiger of the sea – has shifted north, a new group of fishermen are out to catch them. Never having fished for mackerel before, in the summer of 2009, Iceland unilaterally declared for itself a quota of 112,000 tonnes. In 2010, it declared a quota of 130,000 tonnes.

To summarise, the semantic control hypothesis predicts an A > C e

To summarise, the semantic control hypothesis predicts an A > C effect in IFG on the basis that comprehending abstract words is executively MS-275 manufacturer demanding due to their variable, context-dependent meanings. The representational substrates perspective predicts that both A > C and C > A effects may arise in different subregions of the ATL, due to graded specialisations within superior and ventromedial ATL for verbal versus visual semantic knowledge respectively. The ventral ATL is known to play an important role in the processing of concrete

words but its involvement in abstract word knowledge is unclear, with some theories predicting that it is minimally involved. Furthermore, previous studies have not distinguished between effects associated with executive control and those associated with knowledge representation. In this study we used a novel cueing paradigm to make this distinction. We varied the level of contextual Ipilimumab molecular weight support available while participants made semantic decisions to concrete and abstract words (see Table 1). On some trials, a coherent contextual cue was provided immediately prior to the decision. This allowed the participant to activate relevant conceptual

knowledge prior to the decision, reducing the requirement for top-down semantic control processes (Noonan et al., 2010). On other trials, the cues contained irrelevant information, which increased executive demands by introducing conflicting conceptual information that had to be ignored. Regions involved in semantic control would therefore activate more strongly

under irrelevant cue conditions. In contrast, we expected regions involved in the representation of conceptual knowledge activate to most strongly when a relevant contextual cue was provided, as this would allow participants to retrieve a greater quantity of coherent semantic information to support their decision. Importantly, we used a distortion-corrected fMRI protocol (Embleton et al., 2010), allowing us to assess concreteness effects in ventral ATL for the first time. As noted above, this region is critical for semantic processing but is poorly sampled in most fMRI studies due to susceptibility artefacts and signal drop-out (Devlin et al., 2000). In addition, and as a secondary aim of the study, we Carbohydrate investigated concreteness effects in areas of the default mode network. C > A effects are frequently observed in the angular gyrus and posterior cingulate (Binder et al., 2005, Sabsevitz et al., 2005 and Wang et al., 2010), areas which typically display deactivations during task-related processing relative to rest (Buckner, Andrews-Hanna, & Schacter, 2008). Binder et al. (2009) have proposed that the posterior cingulate and, in particular, the angular gyrus are key sites for semantic representation and that concrete regions activate these regions strongly because they have more detailed semantic representations.

Besides, the evolutionary origin of the cirripede crustacean line

Besides, the evolutionary origin of the cirripede crustacean lineage remains ambiguous ( Meusemann et al., 2010), and the most recent phylogenomic studies on pancrustaceans add new transcriptome data on several crustaceans ( von Reumont et al., 2012 and Oakley et al., 2013). The number of sampled crustacean groups remains low, with the majority of EST data

representing economically important species, such as Antarctic krill Euphausia superba ( De Pittà et al., 2008), Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei ( Gorbach et al., 2009 and Li et al., 2012), porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes ( Stillman et al., 2006 and Tagmount ABT-888 clinical trial et al., 2010) and, Daphnia pulex ( Colbourne et al., 2012). The main goal of the present study was to generate a preliminary EST databank of P. pollicipes. We constructed an in-house developed EST library which was merged with the EST data obtained by Meusemann et al. (2010). In our view, this databank will be highly useful in further studies focusing on specific genes, e.g. secreted proteins of the cement glands, or more generally to provide useful genomic information on P. pollicipes. Adult P. pollicipes were collected from O Roncudo (43° 15′ 51″N, 8°

58′ 45″W) (Corme, Galicia, Spain) and stored in RNAlater® (Life Technologies). Total RNA was extracted with Aurum™ Total RNA Mini Kit (BioRad) from part of the foot tissue. The CreatorTM SMARTTM cDNA Library Construction Kit (Clontech) was used with minor adaptations to create a cDNA library with full-length insertion. The cDNA was ligated to pDNR-LIB vector and then transformed into Escherichia coli (TOP10). Recombinant white colonies were randomly picked out and amplified by PCR using M13 primers.

PCR products were visualized on 1% agarose gels to ensure quality of amplification. Amplicons were directly sequenced Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) after being purified with ExoSAP-IT (USB). Sequencing reactions were carried out using both M13 Forward and M13 Reverse primers in a capillary DNA sequencer (3130xl Genetic Analysis System, Applied Biosystems). Electropherograms were quality controlled using Geneious Pro 5.4.6 (Drummond et al., 2011). Finally 119 high-quality ESTs remained for analysis and were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. HG792878–HG792996). In addition to this, 4191 ESTs of P. pollicipes ( Meusemann et al., 2010) were included into analysis (accession nos. FN243242–FN247432). Both EST sets were assembled into unigenes using the iAssembler software ( Zheng et al., 2011) that employs MIRA ( Chevreux et al., 2004) and CAP3 ( Huang and Madan, 1999) to generate initial assemblies. The individual ESTs were assembled into unigenes including contigs and singlets with minimum overlap of 30 bp and minimum percent identity of 97. Resulting unigenes were translated into amino acids following the pipeline described in von Reumont et al. (2013). BLAST2GO software ( Conesa et al., 2005) was used to conduct BLAST (nr database, blastP, e-value = 0.

After preliminary results and based on previous work (Souza et al

After preliminary results and based on previous work (Souza et al., 2012), proportions of 1.88 for glycerol content/essential oil content; and 0.025 for emulsifier content/essential oil content, were chosen to provide films with good visual and

tactile characteristics. Different results of inhibition were obtained for each essential oil and for each microorganism studied (Table 1). For P. commune, inhibition began with 0.5 g/100 g of cinnamon essential oil solution (diameter: 4 mm) and with 4.0 g/100 g of clove essential oil solution (diameter: 6 mm) and was completed (100% of inhibition) with 2.0 g/100 g 3Methyladenine and 16 g/100 g, respectively. For E. amstelodami, inhibition was completed with only 0.5 g/100 g of cinnamon essential oil solution and began with 4.0 g/100 g of clove essential oil solution (diameter: 14 mm) and was completed with 16 g/100 g. With these results, it can be concluded that cinnamon essential oil was more effective against the fungi selected for this work, since it presented Crizotinib purchase a better inhibition with lower concentration. In this way, cinnamon essential oil was chosen to be incorporated in composite films based on cassava starch. Inhibition areas

yielded by cassava starch film disks with different contents of cinnamon essential oil against each studied microorganism are shown in Table 2. ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences among antimicrobial activity of films with different cinnamon essential oil contents (P < 0.05). As predictable, no inhibition zone against the microorganisms was observed for film Nutlin-3 disks without incorporation of essential oil (control films). Comparing the microorganisms, it can be concluded that E. amstelodami is more sensitive for cinnamon essential oil because its inhibition was greater, reaching approximately 91% of inhibition with the highest concentration used. Fig. 2 shows the inhibition of P. commune caused by active films produced with three different contents of cinnamon essential oil. As expected, a better

inhibition was observed with higher content of cinnamon essential oil ( Fig. 3). Even at minimum concentration applied into the film formulation, cinnamon essential oil showed inhibition against both microorganisms, which was considered an important result since that higher concentrations could imply a sensorial impact, altering the natural taste of the food packaged by exceeding the acceptable flavor thresholds. A great number of studies on the antimicrobial characteristics of films made from starch have been carried out earlier. Nevertheless, no information has been presented about the effect of cinnamon essential oil on P. commune and E. amstelodami, which plays an important role in the spoilage of bread products. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) release profiles from cassava starch films, for a monitoring period of 2 h, are shown in Fig. 2. Released amounts of CEO varied from (0.88 ± 0.10) mg CEO/g film to (1.19 ± 0.

Clinical reports have shown a range

Clinical reports have shown a range Entinostat solubility dmso of effects of vestibular stimulation on somatic sensory systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that left cold CVS interacts not only with tactile perception (Vallar et al., 1990, 1993) but also with chronic pain in brain-damaged patients (Ramachandran et al., 2007; McGeoch et al., 2008), and with higher-order body representation

(Bisiach et al., 1991). However, to our knowledge, no clinical study has studied effects of vestibular stimulation on diverse aspects of somatic processing in the same individuals. Here we extend previous clinical findings to healthy volunteers, and show that vestibular inputs have widespread functional effects on different somatosensory submodalities. Because CVS has strong effects on spatial attention, particularly in right brain-damaged patients (Rubens, 1985), many previous clinical studies interpreted effects of CVS on tactile perception in terms of general arousal or shifts of supramodal attention towards the side of the space contralateral to the vestibular organs stimulated (Vallar et al., 1990, 1993). However, several lines of evidence suggest that our learn more data may reflect a direct vestibular-somatosensory interaction, and not just indirect

effects mediated by attention. First, some clinical reports demonstrated Depsipeptide chemical structure an impairment of the VOR with reduced leftward slow-phase and rightward fast-phase in neglect patients (Doricchi et al., 2002; Ventre-Dominey et al., 2003). These results highlight the inter-relation between eye movements, attention, and the vestibular system. Oculomotor effects of vestibular stimulation suggest a direct influence of vestibular signals in the neural activity of brain-damaged areas in the right hemisphere (Ventre-Dominey et al., 2003). Moreover, evidence from healthy

volunteers found no modulation of covert visuo-spatial attention following vestibular stimulation (Rorden et al., 2001). Additionally, CVS selectively affected somatosensory detection but not visual detection in a previous study (Ferrè et al., 2011). Finally, neuroanatomical overlap between vestibular and somatosensory cortical projections is widespread, and not confined to ‘attentional’ brain areas. The present results provide further evidence for a direct vestibular-somatosensory interaction, in addition to any attentional aspect. Our results cannot easily be reconciled with the attentional interpretation of CVS derived from patient studies. First we found that vestibular modulation of both touch and pain was bilateral, and not unilateral as a spatial attentional account would predict.