We analyzed CD publication output with respect to its degree of d

We analyzed CD publication output with respect to its degree of diffusion among journals and authors, and assessed for an association between economic parameters and output.\n\nResults The number of publications has increased steadily since 1980, with acceleration in

the rate of increase beginning in 1995; this trend was also observed in the number of publications in Crohn’s disease, whereas the number of publications for H. pylori has begun to decline. The 10 journals with the largest number of Crohn’s disease publications were responsible for 29% of all Crohn’s disease research output in 1995-1999 and 30% in 2005-2009. In contrast, the top 10 CD journals were responsible for 34% of CD output in 1995-1999, but only 25% in 2005-2009 (P<0.0001). Publication output per nation was moderately associated with gross domestic product (r=0.59, P<0.0001).\n\nConclusion The number of publications in CD is increasing, out buy AZD8055 Stattic clinical trial of proportion to the overall growth of the peer-reviewed medical literature. CD publications are spread throughout a larger number of journals, but are more dominated by high-volume authors. Economic factors are associated with national contributions to the world literature in CD. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24: 1071-1077 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Turbidity currents are important phenomena

involved in sediment processes in large reservoirs. Using an obstacle in dam reservoir with the

Galardin supplier objective of complete or relative blockage, diversion or dissipation of turbidity current may result in reducing sediment deposition near dam wall and therefore increased dam lifetime. This technique is commonly used in controlling two-layer flow in fields such as climatology; however, it has been used to control reservoir sedimentation in recent decade. This paper investigates the effects of obstacle heights of a physical setup on controlling of turbidity currents with various inflow characteristics. First, a turbidity current with different concentrations and discharges without using an obstacle was measured along a flume and the height required to block the turbidity current was determined by taking into account flow conditions and other results reflected in the literature. Then, by using the obstacle with varying heights the effects on the turbidity current were studied. The results showed that in sub-critical currents to block the current completely the height of obstacle should be 2 to 2.75 times of the current body depth.”
“Timing is crucial for animals for optimizing foraging, travelling and breeding behaviours in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments. Some seabirds, commuting between land-based nesting colonies and widely dispersed foraging areas at sea, return to their colonies within several hours after sunset.

Differences in protein mobility do not correlate with PAT protein

Differences in protein mobility do not correlate with PAT protein-mediated control of lipolysis catalyzed by HSL or endogenous lipases. Forster resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that each

of the three PAT proteins bind HSL through interaction of the lipase with amino acids within the highly conserved amino-terminal PAT-1 domain. ADFP and LSDP5 bind HSL under basal conditions, whereas phosphorylation of serine residues within three amino-terminal protein kinase A consensus sequences of perilipin A is required for HSL binding and maximal lipolysis. Finally, protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of HSL increases lipolysis in cells expressing ADFP or LSDP5; in contrast, phosphorylation of perilipin A exerts the major control over HSL-mediated lipolysis when perilipin is the main lipid droplet Selleck Metabolism inhibitor protein.”
“Arsenic is one of the most common heavy metal contaminants found in the environment, particularly in water. We examined the impact of perinatal exposure to relatively low levels of arsenic (50 parts per billion, ppb) on neuroendocrine markers associated

with depression and depressive-like behaviors in affected adult C57BL/6J mouse Daporinad mouse offspring. Whereas most biomedical research on arsenic has focused on its carcinogenic potential, a few studies suggest that arsenic can adversely affect brain development and neural function.\n\nCompared to controls, offspring exposed to 50 parts per billion arsenic during the perinatal period had significantly PKC412 manufacturer elevated serum corticosterone levels, reduced whole hippocampal CRFR1 protein level and elevated dorsal hippocampal serotonin 5HT(1A) receptor binding and receptor-effector coupling. 5HT(1A) receptor binding and receptor-effector coupling were not different in the ventral hippocampal formation, entorhinal or parietal cortices,

or inferior colliculus. Perinatal arsenic exposure also significantly increased learned helplessness and measures of immobility in a forced swim task.\n\nTaken together, these results suggest that perinatal arsenic exposure may disrupt the regulatory interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-ad renal axis and the serotonergic system in the dorsal hippocampal formation in a manner that predisposes affected offspring to depressive-like behavior. These results are the first to demonstrate that relatively low levels of arsenic exposure during development can have long-lasting adverse effects on behavior and neurobiological markers associated with these behavioral changes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The p53 wild-type protein plays an important role in cells as is shown by its fine regulation at different levels. Since its discovery, numerous mutations have been described. In breast cancers, p53 is mutated in almost 30% of cases, with a higher frequency in some tumor subtypes.

Knowledge of disease prevalence

and participation in clin

Knowledge of disease prevalence

and participation in clinical trials provides an understanding of recruitment and retention patterns of patients in these trials.”
“Background: Quality of life (QOL) of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) may be impacted by device technology. Historically, our HPN patients used pole-mounted pumps which can hinder activities Selleckchem PFTα and affect QOL. Methods: Patients receiving HPN with a pole-mounted pump completed Short Form 36 (SF-36 (R)) and pump-specific questionnaires. Patients were then enrolled in a 2-month prospective crossover open study. Patients were randomized to use a pole-mounted pump or a portable pump. After 1 month, each arm crossed over. Measurements were repeated at 4 and 8 weeks. Results: Participants included 5 males, 15 females; age 52.8 +/- 3.3 (mean +/- SEM) years; 50% had short

bowel syndrome; received HPN for 83.3 +/- 15.9 months; infused HPN over 11.2 +/- 0.3 hours/day; 4.3 +/- 0.4 days/week. Portable pump users scored 53.75 +/- 5.64, 61.25 +/- 6.14, and 40.31 +/- 4.94 in SF-36v2 physical, social, and health vitality, respectively, while the stationary pump users scored 45.50 +/- 4.82, 55.00 +/- 5.97, and 35.31 +/- 4.63, respectively (NS). They reported ease of movement between rooms (4.11 +/- 0.21 vs 1.44 +/- 0.20; Z-IETD-FMK datasheet P = .001); when traveling (5.00 +/- 0.00 vs 3.00 +/- 0.45; P < .02) (1 = very difficult, 5 = very easy); 5.0% were sleep disturbed with the portable compared to 42.1% with pole-mounted pump (P < .04). Overall, patients

were significantly happier with the portable vs pole-mounted pump (4.53 +/- 0.19 vs 2.68 +/- 0.22; P < .001) (1 = very unhappy, 5 = very happy). Conclusion: Our HPN selleck chemical patients reported improved happiness and satisfaction regarding ease of use and function with a portable vs pole-mounted pump”
“Campylobacter species belong to the most important foodborne bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in humans in both developed and developing countries. With increasing reporting rates, the public awareness towards Campylobacter infections is growing continuously. This strengthens the necessity to establish intervention measures for prevention and control of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. along the food chain, as in particular poultry and poultry meat represent a major source of human infections. An interdisciplinary One Health approach and a combined effort of all stakeholders are necessary to ultimately reduce the burden of campylobacteriosis cases in humans. Numerous studies point out, however, that at present a complete elimination of Campylobacter in the food chain is not feasible. The present aim should therefore be to establish control measures and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in livestock (e.g.

Individuals of these two species were sampled over the mountain a

Individuals of these two species were sampled over the mountain areas of the Balkan Peninsula and genetically analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Additionally, we PXD101 chemical structure performed species distribution models (SDMs) to simulate the distribution patterns of both species in the past (i.e. during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Atlanticum). Our genetic data show contrasting structures, with comparatively low genetic differentiation but high genetic diversity found in E.ottomana, and with stronger genetic differentiation and a lower level of genetic diversity, including many endemic alleles, occurring

restricted to single mountain massifs in E.cassioides. The SDMs support a downhill shift during glacial periods, especially for E.ottomana, with possible interconnection among mountain regions. We conclude that during the cold glacial phases, both species are assumed to shift downhill, but persisted at different elevations, with E.ottomana reaching the foothills and spreading over major parts of the Balkan Peninsula. In contrast, E.cassioides (the truly alpine species) survived in the foothills, but did not reach and SN-38 spread over lowland areas. This more widespread distribution at the Balkan Peninsula of E.ottomana compared with E.cassioides is strongly supported by our distribution models. As a consequence, long-term geographic

restriction to distinct mountain massifs in E.cassioides versus panmixia in

E.ottomana produced two contrasting evolutionary scenarios.(c) 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 112, 569-583.”
“Background: In the U.S., Latino and Asian American immigrants and ethnic minorities may be at increased risk for alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs/DUDs). The role of psychosocial and contextual characteristics as potential factors underlying this increased risk is unresolved. Methods: Participants include 4649 adults selleck products from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between acculturation, acculturative stress, neighborhood characteristics, family characteristics, and discrimination and AUDs/DUDs. Models were stratified by age of immigration and ethnicity and controlled for demographic and mental health characteristics. Results: Overall, 9.6% of Latino and 4.1% of Asian participants met criteria for lifetime AUDs/DUDs. Acculturation, family conflict, and discrimination were positively associated with AUDs/DUDs (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [95%CIs]: 1.80[1.54-2.09], 1.24[1.12-1.36], and 1.54[1.38-1.73]), while neighborhood safety and family cohesion were protective for AUDs/DUDs (ORs[95%CIs]: 0.75[0.66-0.85] and 0.79[0.69-0.90]). Acculturative stress and neighborhood cohesion were not related to AUDs/DUDs.

Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regul

Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus

punctatus) gill following click here a challenge with the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Furthermore, the magnitude of RBL up-regulation positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Moving forward from these findings, we wished to more broadly understand RBL function, diversity, and expression kinetics in channel catfish. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the RBL gene family present in select channel catfish tissues and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, six RBLs were identified from channel catfish and LY2835219 were designated IpRBL1a, IpRBL1b, IpRBL1c, IpRBL3a, IpRBL3b, and IpRBL5a. These RBLs contained

carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ranging from one to three domains and each CRD contained the conserved motifs of -YGR- and -DPC-. Despite a level of structural conservation, the catfish RBLs showed low full-length identity with RBLs from outside the order Siluriformes. IpRBL expression after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that IpRBLs may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that chronic low-dose irradiation increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We evaluated and compared the in vitro biological effects of both single and fractionated low-doses of X-ray irradiation on endothelial cells. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were irradiated with

X-rays, with single doses of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy or fractionated doses of 2 x 0.125 Gy and 2 x 0.25 Gy, with 24 h interfraction interval. Survival, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, HUVEC adhesiveness and DNA damage were investigated. Results: We did not observe any effect on viability and apoptosis. Both single and fractionated doses induced ROS AL3818 mouse generation, NF-kappa B activation, ICAM-1 protein expression and HUVEC adhesiveness, but only fractionated doses increase significantly ICAM-1 mRNA. The effects measured after fractionated dose result always higher than those induced by the single dose. Moreover, we observed that DNA double strand break (DSB), visualized with gamma-H2AX foci, is dose-dependent and that the kinetics of gamma-H2AX foci is not affected by fractionated doses. Conclusions: We showed that single and fractionated low-dose irradiations with low energy X-rays do not affect cell viability and DNA repair.


1 is the first example of a taxane


1 is the first example of a taxane learn more with 13-glycosidic linkage.”
“A new potential approximation known as modified Becke-Johnson based on density functional theory is applied to compute the electronic band profile and optical response of CdIn2O4, CdGa2O4 and CdAl2O4 compounds. The direct band gap with common LDA, GGA and EV-GGA is drastically underestimated compared with modified Becke-Johnson approximation, whose results are significantly closer to the experimental findings. The optical properties like dielectric constant, refractive index, reflectivity, optical conductivity and absorption coefficient are also computed. A unique characteristic associated with cation replacement is studied; the replacement of cation In by Ga and Ga by Al significantly reduces the direct energy band gap in these compounds. This variation is of crucial importance for band gap dependent optical properties of these compounds, which is also proof for applications of these compounds in optoelectronic devices.”
“Injectable drug nanocarriers have greatly benefited in their clinical development from the addition of a superficial hydrophilic corona to improve their cargo pharmacokinetics. The most studied and used polymer for this purpose is poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. However, in spite of its wide use for over two decades now, there is no general consensus on the optimum PEG chain coverage-density and

size required to escape from the mononuclear phagocyte system and to extend the

circulation time. Moreover, cellular uptake and active targeting may have conflicting requirements in terms of surface properties of the nanocarriers which DAPT complicate even more the optimization process. These persistent issues can be largely attributed to the lack of straightforward characterization techniques to assess the coverage-density, the conformation or Z-VAD-FMK the thickness of a PEG layer grafted or adsorbed on a particulate drug carrier and is certainly one of the main reasons why so few clinical applications involving PEG coated particle-based drug delivery systems are under clinical trial so far. The objective of this review is to provide the reader with a brief description of the most relevant techniques used to assess qualitatively or quantitatively PEG chain coverage-density, conformation and layer thickness on polymeric nanoparticles. Emphasis has been made on polymeric particle (solid core) either made of copolymers containing PEG chains or modified after particle formation. Advantages and limitations of each technique are presented as well as methods to calculate PEG coverage-density and to investigate PEG chains conformation on the NP surface. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In 2010, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to add 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) to its national immunization schedule, using a “3+0″ dosing schedule.

Hydrolysis of many drugs is reduced in liver diseases such as hep

Hydrolysis of many drugs is reduced in liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. In this study, we have demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo, treatment

with LPS decreased the expression of HCE1 and HCE2 and the capacity of hydrolytic activity. In HepG2 cells, the decreased expression by LPS occurred at both mRNA and protein levels. Both HCE1 and HCE2 promoters were significantly repressed by LPS, and the repression was comparable with the decrease in HCE1 and HCE2 mRNA, suggesting the transrepression is responsible for suppressed expression. Further study showed that both PDTC, a NF-kappa B inhibitor, and SB203580, STA-9090 molecular weight a p38MAPK inhibitor, could abolish the repression of HCE1 and HCE2 mediated by LPS, but U0126, a selective ERK1/2 inhibitor, could not do so, suggesting the repression of HCE1 and HCE2 by LPS through the p38MAPK-NF-kappa B LY3023414 mouse pathway. In addition, being pretreated with LPS, HepG2 cells altered the cellular responsiveness to ester therapeutic agents, including clopidogrel (hydrolyzed by HCE1) and irinotecan (hydrolyzed by HCE2). The altered cellular responsiveness occurred at low micromolar concentrations, suggesting that suppressed expression of carboxylesterases by LPS has profound pharmacological and toxicological consequences, particularly with those that are hydrolyzed

in an isoform-specific manner. This study provides new insight into the understanding of the pharmacological and toxicological effects and the mechanisms for repressing drug metabolism enzymes in inflammation. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”

syndrome (MFS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for FIBRILLIN-1 (FBN1), an extracellular matrix protein. MFS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and displays major manifestations in the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Here we report molecular and phenotypic profiles MI-503 in vivo of skeletogenesis in tissues differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells that carry a heritable mutation in FBN1. We demonstrate that, as a biological consequence of the activation of TGF-beta signaling, osteogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells with a FBN1 mutation is inhibited; osteogenesis is rescued by inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. In contrast, chondrogenesis is not perturbated and occurs in a TGF-beta cell-autonomous fashion. Importantly, skeletal phenotypes observed in human embryonic stem cells carrying the monogenic FBN1 mutation (MFS cells) are faithfully phenocopied by cells differentiated from induced pluripotent-stem cells derived independently from MFS patient fibroblasts.

This interpretation is supported by models of ocean currents arou

This interpretation is supported by models of ocean currents around Antarctica and Mocetinostat Epigenetics inhibitor implies an unrestricted oceanic connection across Antarctica between southern South America and the Tasman Sea. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The colourful appearance of bird eggshells has long fascinated biologists and considerable research effort has focused on the structure and biochemistry of the avian eggshell matrix. The presence of tetrapyrrole

pigments was identified nearly a century ago. Surprisingly, how the concentrations of avian eggshell pigments vary among related species, and whether this variability is associated with either eggshell appearance and/or species life-history traits, remains poorly understood. We quantified the concentrations of the two key eggshell pigments, protoporphyrin IX and biliverdin, from a diverse sample of eggshells stored at the Natural History Museum, Tring, UK. We explicitly tested how these two pigments are associated with physical measures of eggshell coloration and whether

the pigment concentrations and colour diversity co-vary with phylogenetic affiliations among species. We also tested a series of comparative hypotheses regarding the association between the concentrations of the two pigments and specific life-history and breeding ecology traits. Across species, the average concentrations of protoporphyrin and biliverdin were positively correlated, and both strongly co-varied with phylogenetic relatedness. Controlling for phylogeny, protoporphyrin concentration was associated with a higher likelihood of cavity nesting and ground nesting, whereas biliverdin concentration was associated with MEK inhibitor cancer a higher likelihood of non-cavity nesting habit and bi-parental provisioning. selleck Although unlikely to be explained by a single function, the breeding ecology and life history-dependence of eggshell pigment concentrations in these comparative analyses implies that related species share pigment strategies, and that those strategies relate to broad adaptive roles in the evolution of variation in avian eggshell coloration and its underlying

mechanisms. (C) 2012 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, 106, 657672.”
“Background: Because early administration of intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) has been linked to infectious complications in trauma patients, we began withholding IVFE for the first seven to ten days of parenteral nutrition (PN) in all surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. Prior to this, IVFE had been infused from the start of PN.\n\nPurpose: To evaluate the influence of delaying IVFE on infectious complications in SICU patients.\n\nMethods: Retrospective review from October 2006 to June 2009 of SICU patients before and after a change in IVFE practice patterns in a 44-bed SICU at an academic medical center. Adult patients who received PN for more than six days were included.

Conclusions These data provide the first evidence that NSC804

\n\nConclusions These data provide the first evidence that NSC80467 and YM155 are DNA damaging agents where suppression of survivin is a secondary event, likely a consequence of transcriptional repression.”
“The SIR protein SF2/ASF has been initially characterized as a splicing factor but has also been shown to mediate postsplicing activities such as mRNA export and translation. Here we demonstrate that SF2/ASF promotes translation initiation of bound mRNAs and that this activity requires the presence of the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein elF4E. SF2/ASF promotes translation initiation by suppressing the activity of 4E-BP, click here acompetitive inhibitor of cap-dependent translation. This activity

is mediated by interactions of SF2/ASF with both mTOR and the phosphatase PP2A, two key regulators of 4E-BP phosphorylation. These findings suggest the model whereby SF2/ ASF functions as an adaptor protein to recruit the signaling molecules responsible for regulation of cap-dependent

translation of specific mRNAs. Taken together, these data suggest a novel mechanism for the activation of translation initiation of a subset of mRNAs bound by the shuttling protein SF2/ASF.”
“Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria AZD9291 cost transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran

were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected selleck chemicals llc vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission.

In the third monkey, who was slower to learn the task, peak voxel

In the third monkey, who was slower to learn the task, peak voxels showed no systematic changes. Thus, VBM can detect significant brain changes in individual trained monkeys exposed to tool-use training for the first time. This approach could open up a means of investigating the underlying neurobiology of motor learning and other higher brain functions in individual animals.”
“A complete micropropagation protocol was developed by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs) of a vulnerable and high value aromatic medicinal plant, Hedychium spicatum. Three cytokinins,

6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (KN) and thidiazuron (TDZ) were used and among these, the lower concentration of TDZ (1.0 mu M) was found to be the most effective treatment in relation to induction of high frequency shoot multiplication (83.33%), number of shoots per explant (3.86 shoots) and average number of shoots per flask (19.33 shoots). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric

VX-809 in vitro acid (IBA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were the used auxins in this study for in-vitro rooting. Among these used auxins, the lower concentration of IBA (2.5 mu M) was the prominent plant growth regulator regarding in vitro rooting. Well rooted PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 and healthy plantlets were obtained after 2 months of hardening and transferred to the field (1990 m) with 90.0% survival. On the basis of available literature, this is the first and significant study regarding the comparative selleck kinase inhibitor effect of different PGRs on in-vitro propagation study of H. spicatum. This significant study could be useful for large scale propagation and ex-situ conservation of this vulnerable Himalayan species.”
“Aim: This study examined beta-cell function and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in Asian Indian youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y) and prediabetes.\n\nSubjects and Methods: Eighty-two subjects with non-insulin-requiring

type 2 diabetes and age of onset below 25 years were recruited within 18 months of diagnosis and compared with age- and sex-matched subjects with prediabetes (n = 31) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 83). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured, and blood samples were taken in the fasting state and after 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of an oral glucose load for assessment of plasma glucose and insulin levels. Insulin sensitivity/resistance measures was calculated by using the reciprocal of the fasting insulin, the HOMA-IR equation, and the composite whole body insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda Index), and beta-cell function was calculated by the oral disposition index (DIo).\n\nResults: T2DM-Y and prediabetes subjects had higher BMI, waist circumference, and fasting insulin than NGT subjects (P < 0.05 for each). The 30-min insulin levels were lower in T2DM-Y and higher in prediabetes subjects compared with NGT (57 and 140 vs. 129 mu IU/mL, P < 0.001).