But such collections are present,

today, almost exclusive

But such collections are present,

today, almost exclusively in developed countries only. Many historical questions that should have been monitored decades before for the sources, transport and accumulation of the thousands of anthropogenic chemicals can be studied at present and also in the future, as they are now in store at about 20 environmental specimen banks spread all over the world. Thousands of new chemicals are coming into existence with increasing usage in agriculture, industries, etc. With the emergence of several such potentially hazardous contaminants, the need for determining past exposure patterns and temporal and Dabrafenib research buy spatial trends will become an absolute necessity in future. The first ever specimen bank was established in Sweden in the 1960s and since then this practice has made progress such that many specialized banks have been established in different countries. Now there are banks storing samples both from abiotic environment such as air, water, soil and sediment as well as biological samples obtained from human, animals and plants. There are now 19 well established specimen banks located in 13 countries (Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Africa, Spain,

Sweden, U.K. SCH772984 cell line and U.S.A.) representing five continents (Becker and Wise, 2010), but almost all of them are developed nations, except Brazil and South Africa. While many of those specimen banks archive either specific samples (e.g. human tissues, marine mammals) or samples from specific locations (marine, coastal)

and countries, some are archiving variety of samples from all over the world (e.g. es-BANK at Ehime University, Japan) (Tanabe, 2006). Historically, the primary reason for archiving samples was to provide materials for analyzing trends of previously unrecognized pollutants in environmental and biological matrices, or for determining pollutants of contemporary interest for which analytical techniques were unavailable during the time of collection. Recently, the specimens from such banks have also been used for studying some of the biological parameters of rare and critically endangered Vildagliptin species. The results obtained from the specimen bank samples have brought to light many interesting temporal and spatial trends of pollutants (Braune, 2007, Tanabe, 2007, Tanabe and Minh, 2010 and Tanabe et al., 2008). If such findings have to be continued in future, as they should, then establishing new specimen banks, and maintenance and upgrading existing specimen banks, is badly needed. It is well known that pollution by any chemical, either persistent or non-persistent, is never local or regional but is always global. So, when it comes to the question of archiving specimens, it should be always done on a global scale, especially in the case of biological specimens.

Temporal scaling function for simultaneous determination of trend

Temporal scaling function for simultaneous determination of trend in frequency parameters (location, scale and shape respectively) for EX527 time in years (t) for varying growth functions (i = 0 is no growth, i = 1 is linear and i = 2 is power). equation(3) μˆ(t)=μ0+∑0i=2μi⋅tiσˆ(t)=σ0+∑0i=2σi⋅tiξˆ(t)=ξ0+∑0i=2ξi⋅ti Frequency re-analysis of both the NMIA and SIA datasets confirm the original results of the UWA (1995), and this was used as the control experiment (PWM-Gumbel). Both the correlation and SRC are high with a CC of 0.98 for NMIA and 0.96 for SIA (see Fig. 2 columns labelled PWM-Gumbel). Along with the low biases

this confirms the ability of the Gumbel PDF with PWM and Hosking PPF to fit the data for the two stations. Goodness of fit was visually inspected, and the quantile of the PDF describes the AMS data accurately (see Fig. 3 top panel). Frequency analysis was not sensitive to PPF. All three PPFs performed credibly with CC ranging from 0.93 to 1.0 and biases ranging from −0.36 to 0.7 mm PLX4032 in Experiment 1 (Fig. 2 middle and bottom panels). Neither the CC nor bias suggested an improvement for the NMIA

dataset. For the SIA station, CC reduced from 0.96 (control) to 0.93 with the Weibull PPF and the biases increased from 0.39 to 0.7 mm. It should be kept in mind that CC is not a robust estimator of the variance and is sensitive to fringeliers. PPF by Hazen performed best with a lower absolute bias for both NMIA and SIA of 0.22 and 0.26 mm respectively in comparison to the Hosking or Weibull (−0.36 and 0.39 mm respectively). Frequency analysis was similarly not sensitive to PEM, in Experiment 2 (see Fig. 2). L-Moments and standard statistics estimation methods produced similar performances

for NMIA but reduced performance for SIA. For SIA, the CC reduced from 0.96 (control) to 0.93 for both L-Moments and standard statistics estimation methods; however the SRC remained at 1.0. The biases for NMIA increased significantly from −0.36 (control) to 0.73 mm for NMIA and affirm the importance of using multiple GOF. Parameter estimation using either L-Moments or standard statistics did not provide any significant improvement over the PWM method in the analysis of this dataset. The Weibull PDF and L-Moments parameter old estimation are frequently used in hydrological frequency analysis because of their purported benefits relative to other distributions and parameter estimation techniques (Gaál and Kysely, 2009, García-Marín et al., 2013, Sarkar et al., 2010, Yang et al., 2010, Kharin and Zwiers, 2005, Fowler et al., 2007 and Leander et al., 2014). However, the benefits were not consistently observed throughout this analysis as Weibull outperformed the Gumbel in terms of CC and SRC, but underperformed in terms of the bias as shown in the results of Experiment 3 (see Fig. 2). The Weibull configured analysis had CC of 0.983 and 0.963 for NMIA and SIA respectively versus a CC in the control of 0.981 and 0.963.

The hydrohalite in the remaining Raman images seem to be rather n

The hydrohalite in the remaining Raman images seem to be rather non-uniformly distributed, which contrasts the study of Okotrub et al., where it is hypothesized from point measurements that the hydrohalite form a uniform shell around the cell, since a higher Raman ZD1839 response was measured at the border of the cell. We cannot directly conclude from our Raman images whether the hydrohalite detected in the confocal probing volume is within the cell or outside, due to the limited axial resolution of our setup and the small thickness of the lipid membrane of the cell. This knowledge is critical to the understanding of the injury mechanisms

of eutectic crystallization. In order to determine the location of the hydrohalite we will employ colocalization image analysis. Through the use of colocalization image analysis we can determine whether two phases in a Raman image are spatially correlated. Many of the features found in the Raman images can be found in their corresponding colocalization map. We will use the colocalization map Fig. 1f as an example. The high density of data points in the lower left corner corresponds to data points containing no cellular matter or hydrohalite crystals, and thus describes the dominant ice phase of the Raman image. Any clearly extracellular hydrohalite will result in a vertical Alectinib chemical structure branch from the ice region in the colocalization

map, which can be seen in Fig. 1f and corresponds to the hydrohalite located in the dendritic channel. Data points containing cellular matter but no hydrohalite are similarly located along the horizontal axis. Data points containing both cellular matter and hydrohalite in the focal volume are located in the remaining of the colocalization map. In the example shown in Fig. 1f the data points are approximately located along a line, meaning that these data points show a spatial correlation between the hydrohalite phase and cellular

matter. Fig. 3d shows the colocalization map from Class A where the hydrohalite are primarily located in dendritic channels around the cell. This results in two rather distinct lines along the cellular and hydrohalite axes in the colocalization map. The Raman spectra measured at the edge of the cell will MYO10 contain contributions from both cellular matter and hydrohalite which leads to the data points slightly centered in colocalization map. The most distinct feature of extracellular hydrohalite is however the branch located close to and along the vertical axis. The main characteristic of colocalization maps of images with intracellular hydrohalite (Class B) is that a significant amount of data points are located along a line towards the top right corner of the colocalization map, such as in the colocalization map shown in Fig. 3e. This shows a spatial correlation between the amount of hydrohalite and cellular matter in the focal volume, which is a clear indication of intracellular hydrohalite. The Raman image in Fig. 3b can thus be attributed to Class B.

albicans adhesion The hypotheses were that the coating applicati

albicans adhesion. The hypotheses were that the coating application would decrease

the surface hydrophobicity and reduces C. albicans adhesion, and that there would be differences among coatings. Disc-shaped silicone patterns (13.8 mm × 2 mm) were obtained from metallic matrices. Half of the silicone patterns were inserted between two glass plates and the other half were inserted in dental flasks directly BI6727 in contact with the stone. These two methods of specimen preparation were used to obtain smooth and rough surfaces that simulate the outer and inner surfaces of the dentures, respectively. The silicone patterns were then removed, and the surfaces were coated with a layer of separating medium (Vipi Film; VIPI Indústria e Comércio Exportação e Importação de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda Pirassununga, SP, Brazil). A colourless microwave-polymerized denture base acrylic resin (Vipi

Wave; VIPI Indústria e Comércio Exportação e Importação de Produtos Odontológicos Ltda., Pirassununga, SP, Brazil) was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions at a mixing ratio of 1 g powder to 0.47 mL of liquid for each specimen. The moulds were filled with the acrylic resin, a trial pack was completed, and excess material was removed. A final pack Selleck PF2341066 was performed and held for 15 min. The denture base acrylic resin was processed in a 500 W domestic microwave oven (Brastemp; Brastemp da Amazônia SA, Manaus, AM, Brazil) for 20 min at 20% power followed by 5 min at 90% power. After polymerization, the flasks were allowed to cool at room temperature, the specimens were deflasked, and the excess was trimmed with a sterile bur (Maxi-Cut; Lesfils de August Malleifer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland). A total of 468 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated by a single operator wearing a mask, gloves and protective clothing. Considering the possible influence of roughness on the adhesion of microorganisms to substrate surfaces,3 and 30 the surface roughness of the specimens was

measured using a profilometer (Mitutoyo SJ 400; Mitutoyo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) accurate to 0.01 μm. The cutoff length SB-3CT was 0.8 mm, the transverse length was 2.4 mm, the stylus speed was 0.5 mm/s and the diamond stylus tip radius was 5 μm. Four measurements were made on the surface of each specimen and averaged to obtain the Ra value (μm). All measurements were recorded by a single operator. After roughness reading, the specimens were randomly assigned to 13 groups of 36 specimens each; 18 specimens had smooth surfaces and 18 specimens had rough surfaces. In the control group (C), the specimens did not receive any surface treatment. In each experimental group, all specimen surfaces were coated with a layer of one of the experimental photopolymerized coatings.

38 Consistent with an earlier study, we observed an increase in t

38 Consistent with an earlier study, we observed an increase in the TBARS level in rats with EP,39 a finding that could be effectively suppressed with vitamin E treatment. SOD catalyses the dismutation of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and serves to protect cells against oxidative stress. SOD accumulation is caused by augmented ROS via the activation of redox-sensitive transactivating factors. In this study, besides the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, treatment with vitamin E caused a decrease in SOD activity, which

implies a reduced production Everolimus of ROS and consequently a reduced oxidative stress to periodontal tissues. In conclusion, our results suggest that vitamin E could improve the inflammatory process in the rat model of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. However, vitamin E showed no protection against alveolar bone loss associated

with experimental periodontitis and, moreover, demonstrated an anxiogenic effect. Thus, the possibility check details of using this compound as adjunct therapy deserves further investigation. The authors would like to thank Renata Leitão, Mariana Vale from the Faculty of Medicine, and the Federal University of Ceará for the histopathological analysis. Funding: This study had the financial support of the Research Foundation of the State of Ceará (FUNCAP) and the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq). Competing interests: The authors declare they have no conflict of interest. Ethical approval: This study was approved by Federal University of Ceará ethics committee (reference number 052/07). “
“Despite many crucial histological and structural differences between teeth and implants, their clinical similarities Farnesyltransferase lead researchers

to apply some general well accepted statements in periodontal field to implant dentistry. The inflammation restricted to soft tissues in early stages followed by bone loss and increased pocket depth could exemplify these similarities. In addition, peri-implant and periodontal diseases share some risk factors such as age, tobacco use and levels of oral hygiene.1, 2, 3 and 4 The fact that risk factors for periodontal disease could also increase the risk of development of peri-implant disease confirms that both disorders share some etiopathogenic aspects. Moimaz et al.5 reported smoking, a recognized risk factor for periodontitis, as the most important risk factor for the development of mucositis. For peri-implant disease similar findings were also observed by Karbach et al.6 in a sample of 100 patients with single implants. Interestingly, periodontitis history per se may also be considered a risk factor for peri-implant disease.4 Schou et al.,7 in a systematic review, showed a significantly increased incidence of peri-implantitis and peri-implant bone loss in subjects with periodontitis associated tooth loss. Similarly, Safii et al.

Sunitinib monotherapy has activity in advanced breast cancers [9]

Sunitinib monotherapy has activity in advanced breast cancers [9]. Sunitinib has also been demonstrated to be effective in combination with chemotherapy in preclinical models [10]. However, sunitinib therapy

can induce intratumoral hypoxia, which enriches cancer stem cells [11]. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes cell growth, proliferation, and survival in response to nutrient signals and a variety of cytokines. mTOR also plays a vital role in the selleck inhibitor regulation of cancer cell growth and progression [12]. mTOR promotes cancer cell migration and invasion [13]. mTOR has been demonstrated to impact angiogenesis. The phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is the downstream of VEGF and promotes endothelial cell survival [14]. In the hind limb ischemia, Akt is critical for ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis buy I-BET-762 [15]. Endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment have chronic Akt activation, and the sustained Akt activation induces the formation of abnormal microvessels, which mimic the effects of VEGF-A–induced angiogenesis

[16]. Treatment of cultured cells with rapamycin decreased activation of Akt [17]. Rapamycin can inhibit pathologic angiogenesis through the inhibition of endothelial Akt signaling [16] and VEGF production [18]. Then, mTOR has been considered as a promising target for cancer therapy [19]. mTOR regulates the expression of HIF-1α expression [20]. We then hypothesized that rapamycin could suppress antiangiogenic therapy–induced cancer metastasis. In addition, there is no study investigating the synergism between antiangiogenic therapy and rapamycin on breast tumor model. In our present study, we demonstrate the synergistic effect of rapamycin and sunitinib on tumor regression. However, the hypothesized therapeutic effect of sunitinib combined with rapamycin on learn more lung

metastasis was not observed, and, unexpectedly, we found that the combination promoted the lung metastasis of cancer cells. BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were purchased from Beijing HFK Bioscience Co (Beijing, China) and maintained under pathogen-free conditions in the animal facility with individual ventilation. All animal experiments were carried out according to protocols approved by Sichuan University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Murine breast cancer cell lines (4T1) were cultured in the RPMI1640 media supplemented with 10% FBS at 37°C, 5% CO2 atmosphere. Rapamycin was obtained from Selleck Chemicals (Houston, TX). Sunitinib was purchased from Pfizer company (New York, NY). Syngeneic breast cancers were established by subcutaneous inoculation of 4T1 cells. Briefly, 1 × 106 4T1 cells were injected subcutaneously in the right flank of BALB/c mice.

, 2011) In addition, this region is subject

, 2011). In addition, this region is subject RGFP966 manufacturer to the inflows from the River Vistula, which frequently change the physical and chemical parameters of the water, especially after the spring floods ( Buszewski et al. 2005). Harris mud crabs collected in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterised by a similar carapace width range as the specimens collected in other regions, such as the Dead Vistula, the Vistula Lagoon or the Odra Estuary. Rychter (1999)

made very similar observations for the Vistula Lagoon population (Rychter, 1999, Normant et al., 2004 and Czerniejewski, 2009). The size distribution of the Gulf of Gdańsk population exhibits a normal pattern, but worth noting nonetheless is the presence of a large number of juveniles. In 2009–2010, juveniles were dominant in the samples, their abundance exceeding 31% of the total number of individuals collected. Such a high number of juveniles has never been selleck compound recorded in any of the analysed populations from other regions. Juvenile specimens have been reported but never at abundances exceeding 10% of the sampled individuals (Ryan, 1956 and Roche and Torchin, 2007). On the one hand, the presence of such a large number of juveniles may be due to dredging instead of using baited

traps, but on the other it may indicate a demographic expansion of the population under scrutiny. During dredging, small specimens are trapped between other material, whereas in the case of baited traps, only larger individuals, actively looking for food are usually caught (Miller

1990). Temperature in the Gulf of Gdańsk exhibits seasonal variations up to 20 °C (Piliczewski 2001). This factor appears to be significant in determining the occurrence of R. harrisii, many as observed in other poikilothermic organisms living in the temperate zone ( Schmidt-Nielsen 1997). On the other hand, the greater depth range of the Gulf of Gdańsk gives the crab the opportunity of remaining in its preferred temperature longer than in shallow waters. This has been confirmed by seasonal studies demonstrating that the species migrates to other depths in response to changes in the water temperature. The abundance of R. harrisii increases in the summer months and decreases in the winter. A similar pattern was observed in the Dead Vistula and the Odra Estuary population ( Turoboyski, 1973 and Czerniejewski, 2009). The changes in distribution are likely to be caused by the mud crab’s habit of overwintering, when the animals bury into the bottom sediment or hide between the shells (authors’ own observations) and remain inactive. This behaviour probably accounts for the apparent absence of crabs in their natural habitat during winter ( Turoboyski, 1973 and Czerniejewski, 2009). On the other hand, at water temperatures within the 18.1–19.1 ° C range no specimens were recorded either.

The frequency of the other haplotypes (Hap_6, Hap_7, Hap_10, and

The frequency of the other haplotypes (Hap_6, Hap_7, Hap_10, and Hap_11) was moderate, between 5.4% and 8.7% (Table 5). The frequencies of GhExp2 haplotypes differed markedly across species ( Table 6). Haplotype diversity ranged from 0.667 in G. arboreum (7 accessions) selleck chemicals llc to 0.767 in G. hirsutum (74 accessions). The difference was particularly evident for the haplotypes (Hap_1, Hap_2, and Hap_3) present only in G. arboreum. The most frequently identified haplotypes were confined to G. hirsutum. Six haplotypes were present in < 10% of accessions sampled, six were unique to one species, and six

were exclusive to accessions from single species, indicating that every allele was unique to one species. Thus, interspecific crossing would create novel alleles. G. hirsutum accessions were largely separated into six haplotypes. In comparison with G. arboreum and G. barbadense, more haplotypes and higher diversity were observed in G. hirsutum ( Table 5). The prerequisite for all subsequent analyses in this study was the characterization of population structure using

the software package Structure 2.3.1 [26]. Based on 132 unlinked SSR markers, providing even coverage of the cotton genome, we ran Structure for K (number of PI3K signaling pathway fixed subpopulations or clusters) ranging from 2 to 10. The model with K = 7 clusters showed higher log likelihood (ln Pr(X|K) = − 9805.2) than for other integer values of K, and the likelihoods for K = 8 and 9 decreased markedly, compared with that for K = 7. Because the likelihood peaked at K = 7 in the range of two to ten subpopulations, the most likely number of putative ancestral populations (K) was identified as seven. very The number of these 92 cotton accessions assigned to each of the seven inferred clusters ranged from 2 to 39. Kullback–Leibler distances of pairwise subpopulations were significant (P < 0.001) and ranged from 0.1251 to 1.4933 (average 0.6856), suggesting a genuine difference among these clusters and supporting the existence of genetic structure ( Fig. 5, Table 7). The G. arboreum

accessions (except for CRZM) and G. barbadense accessions (except for Giza 80) lines were very distinct from all other lines from G. hirsutum because of the genetic isolation that occurred during their development, and were accordingly (6 G. arboreum and 10 G. barbadense accessions) assigned to A (Arboreum) and B (Barbadense) groups, respectively. Giza80 (introduced from Egypt) and CRZM (with fiber length approximating that of tetraploid cotton) were assigned to a seventh M (Mixed) group. Four clusters from G. hirsutum are referred to hereafter as H1 (8 accessions), H2 (19 accessions), H3 (39 accessions) and H4 (8 accessions) subpopulations. These results are consistent with their genomic origins and evolutionary histories.

According to this definition, dietary fibre includes three catego

According to this definition, dietary fibre includes three categories of edible carbohydrate polymers with ten or more degrees of polymerization (DP) non-hydrolyzed by the human endogenous enzymes in the small intestine. The Codex Alimentarius Commission left to the national authorities the decision on whether also to consider the carbohydrates with 3–9 monomeric Selleckchem GW572016 units (Codex Alimentarius, 2009). As reported by Howlett et al. (2010), the scientific community agrees in maintaining the inclusion of non-digestible carbohydrates with DP in the range of 3–9 as dietary fibre based on their substantiated beneficial physiological

effects. These short-chain carbohydrates are included in the definitions of dietary fibre currently adopted in Brazil and the E.U. (ANVISA, 2003b and EC, 2008). On the other hand, the possibility of changing or maintaining this item in the resolution proposed to be adopted in Brazil is not mentioned (ANVISA, 2011). According to Turner and Lupton (2011), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not yet adopted a definition for dietary fibre and has not stated whether it will include www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD6244.html carbohydrates with DP from

3 to 9. According to this information, the present study considered the short and long-chain fructans given by Beneo P95 and Beneo HP-Gel ingredients, respectively, for the estimates Cobimetinib price of TDF and energy of mousses studied, as well as the evaluation of allowed nutrition claims according to the legislations consulted. The energy from macronutrients for the mousses studied is presented in Table 5. The energy value of mousses ranged from 118.08 kcal/100 g (mousse I) up to 151.12 kcal/100 g (control MF). The nutritional differences of modified mousses in comparison with the control mousse

MF are described in Table 6. Mousse I, with 4 g/100 g of inulin, showed a more pronounced reduction in total energy (21.86% less) comparing to control mousse MF and other mousses without the addition of milk cream (WPC and I–WPC). The protein present in whey protein concentrate added in these later mousses provides more energy (4 kcal/g) than inulin (1.5 kcal/g), in the same proportion. Mousse I–WPC was the second in terms of reduction in energy value, with 17.65% when compared to control MF. Mousses WPC, MF–I and MF–I–WPC showed intermediate reduction in energy value, respectively, 12.68%, 11.35%, and 12.83%. The energy value of mousse MF–WPC reduced less compared to the control (3.95%), due to the lower reduction in fat content (Table 3). Considering their absolute energy content, none of these products could be termed “low energy” or “low calorie” according to the Brazilian, E.U., and U.S.

Professeur sans chaire en 1967, il put créer et développer en 197

Professeur sans chaire en 1967, il put créer et développer en 1971 son propre service de chirurgie générale qu’il orienta rapidement vers la chirurgie vasculaire. Avec ses collaborateurs,

Venetoclax mw Jean-Luc Gouzi, puis André Barret, il mit au point la chirurgie restauratrice des gros vaisseaux abdominaux, des vaisseaux des membres ainsi que celle des troncs supra-aortiques, des artères carotides et vertébrales. Chirurgien particulièrement précis et méticuleux, son service était prisé par les internes en chirurgie toulousaine et il acquit rapidement une renommée considérable, rayonnant sur tout le Sud-Ouest. C’est à l’occasion d’une réunion en Allemagne que j’appris qu’il avait fait une préparation olympique d’athlétisme et qu’il faisait partie du Comité international olympique. Après sa retraite en 1985, il assistait

régulièrement aux différents congrès de notre discipline MS-275 in vitro et sa dernière apparition publique se fit au congrès de la Société de chirurgie vasculaire de langue française qui se tint à Toulouse en 2003. “
” Alain Larcan, né dans une famille médicale nancéenne avec une orientation obstétricale, marquée par les noms d’Adolphe Pinard et Albert Fruhinsholz, eut à neuf ans le grand malheur de perdre son père, brillant polytechnicien tué au combat le 17 juin 1940, la veille de l’armistice. Il n’en poursuivit pas moins de très brillantes études qui l’amenèrent à être major de l’internat de Nancy à 21 ans et agrégé à 28. Après une chefferie de service en tant qu’interniste, il devient réanimateur et comme il le dit lui-même, il ne se sent concerné qu’indirectement par l’angiologie, même s’il était confronté à différentes urgences vasculaires, à la thrombolyse rapide et à la maladie

thromboembolique. Mais il privilégiait dans ses recherches cliniques les fonctions cardio-circulatoires de façon globale, sans études trop cloisonnées du cœur, des gros vaisseaux, veines et lymphatiques. Mais il ne s’arrêta Vitamin B12 pas là et s’intéressa très tôt à la microcirculation où s’établissent les échanges et où se trouve l’origine des œdèmes, de la décompensation et du choc. Suivant en cela le chemin indiqué en France par Jean-François Merlen, grâce aux nouvelles techniques de microscopie vitale, il put ainsi étudier directement les premières phases de processus généraux comme le saignement et la thrombose. Grâce à l’aide d’un ingénieur des mines, devenu professeur d’hématologie, Jean-François Stoltz, il fut un des premiers en France à se pencher sur les recherches rhéologiques initiées par Poiseuille qui, faute de techniques appropriées, n’était guère sorti de la notion populaire de « sang épais ».