Similar to STAT6–/– mice, IL-5-deficient mice are protected from

Similar to STAT6–/– mice, IL-5-deficient mice are protected from allergic asthma [35], while monoclonal anti-IL-5 therapy attenuates airway disease successfully [36]. Therefore, it is likely that in crescentic GN, STAT6 activation results in IL-5 production which attenuates renal injury, possibly through the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 responses. Assessing renal injury early in the disease process at day 6 demonstrated no difference between WT and STAT6–/– mice. These results confirmed that the injury seen on day 21 was a result of the heightened systemic immunity which developed between days 6 and 21, and not a reflection of an existing predisposition to renal injury

in STAT6–/– mice. Interestingly, mRNA expression of both T-bet and Rorγt was increased in STAT6–/– mice, with a trend towards increased production of IFN-γ and IL-I7A on day 6. On day 21 differences in production of these cytokines by WT and STAT6–/– mice had reached statistical significance. Previous studies

in STAT6–/– mice in experimental lymphoproliferative disease demonstrated that STAT6 deficiency resulted in a shift from a predominant Th2 phenotype towards production of Th1-associated cytokines. In these experiments no difference was observed in the production of Th17-associated cytokines [37]. Consistent with these results, Th1 differentiation GPCR Compound high throughput screening occurred without the provision of extrinsic IFN-γ or IL-12 in conditional GATA3-deficient mice [38]. The ability of other key regulators to influence the associated and reciprocal Th cell lineages is well described. T-bet, the key regulator of Th1 responses, can influence the Th17 phenotype. In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, inhibition of T-bet by small interfering RNA inhibited the production of both Th1 and Th17 pathogenic responses [39]. Conversely, it has been suggested that T-bet negatively N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase regulates the production of Th17 associated cytokines in vitro[40]; this was demonstrated in vivo in experimental Chagas’ disease [41]. Taken together, these reports demonstrate that key Th1 transcription factors can influence the production of Th17 responses. We propose

that STAT6 influences pathogenic Th1 and Th17 inflammatory responses in experimental crescentic GN. This novel finding suggests a greater role for Th2 cells in experimental crescentic GN than was previously appreciated. In addition to IL-4 and IL-10, it would seem that STAT6 with IL-5 production is required for control of nephritogenic immunity. Production of the regulatory Th2-related cytokines is required not only for regulation of inflammatory Th1 responses but also for regulation of Th17 systemic immunity. In conclusion, we found that STAT6–/– mice developed increased expression of key Th1 and Th17 transcription factors early in the disease. This resulted in increased Th1 and Th17 nephritogenic immunity on day 21. Production of a key Th2-related cytokine, IL-5, was decreased consistently during the disease state.

As with CCR7, we showed previously that the level of CD38 express

As with CCR7, we showed previously that the level of CD38 expression does not correlate Erlotinib datasheet with chemotaxis towards CCL19 [24]. Nevertheless, we could see that DC stimulated with bromelain

or with bromelain in combination with the cytokine cocktail without PGE2 had noticeably higher MFI values for CD38 (Fig. 2B). Addition of reduced amounts of PGE2 did not increase the MFI. Thus, PGE2 had an inhibitory effect of CD38 expression on DC, similar to IL-12p70 production. Interestingly, a correlation between CD38 expression and IL-12p70 secretion of DC has been described previously [33], in agreement with our data. The only DC population capable of producing higher amounts of IL-12p70 was DC stimulated PS-341 nmr with bromelain in combination with the cytokine cocktail without PGE2. We expected to find a higher secretion of IL-12p70 in the group stimulated with the cytokine cocktail without PGE2, as PGE2 has been claimed to be responsible for the lack of this cytokine, but our results indicate that it is not enough to only remove PGE2. In addition to not producing any notable amounts of IL-12p70, these DC also showed a less mature phenotype compared with the other groups, so obviously PGE2 is necessary for inducing (phenotypic) maturation. However, addition of bromelain could overcome this lack of stimulation. On the other hand, bromelain alone was not potent enough to induce both phenotypic

maturation and high IL-12p70 production. The lack of IL-12p70 production was not a result of a general inability of the DC, as we detected large amounts of IL-12p70 after stimulation with the bacterial compound OK432

using DC from the same preparation [24]. Comparing the functionality of the generated DC populations in a MLR, we could show that PGE2 also influenced the T cell stimulatory capacity of the DC. When DC stimulated with the modified cytokine cocktail without PGE2 were cocultured with lymphocytes, fewer proliferative T cells were detected. Addition of ¼ of PGE2 to the cocktail improved this stimulatory capacity. This was also true regarding the phenotype of the cells. Use of ¼ of the amount of of PGE2 in the cocktail increased the expression of surface maturation markers, and some markers had even higher surface expression using this stimulation than with the original cytokine cocktail. Addition of bromelain to both the original and the modified cytokine cocktail with reduced PGE2 resulted in an even more mature phenotype, but this phenotype had an insufficient secretion of IL-12p70. Because IL-12p70 is essential for a strong induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, several other attempts to generate DC with high IL-12p70 secretion have been made by other research groups. Stimulation with polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) has shown to generate DC capable of producing high amounts of IL-12p70 [34, 35].

Urine samples were obtained preoperatively and 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 a

Urine samples were obtained preoperatively and 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h postoperatively, and urinary KIM-1 and NGAL contents were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and corrected against urine creatinine content. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves TAM Receptor inhibitor were used to determine the area under the curve (AUCs) of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL for AKI. The baseline urinary KIM-1 contents were higher in AKI patients than non-AKI patients (P < 0.01). Urinary NGAL contents were also higher in AKI patients

than non-AKI patients (P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) of urinary KIM-1 was 0.900 (P = 0.004) and at a cutoff of 338.26 pg/mg Cr, the sensitivity was 90% and the specificity was 75%. learn more The AUC of urinary NGAL was 0.900 (P = 0.004) and at a cutoff of 261.76 ng/mg Cr, the sensitivity was 90% and the specificity was 87.5%. The combined AUC of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL was 0.938 (P = 0.002) with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Cox regression analysis revealed that urinary KIM-1content 72 h after operation correlated with the prognosis of AKI patients (P = 0.009). When kidney viability was stratified by urinary KIM-1 content 72 h postoperatively, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed

that patients with a urinary content of KIM-1 < 138.20 pg/mg had a higher kidney viability rate than those with a urinary content of KIM-1 > 138.20 pg/mg. Urinary KIM-1 and NGAL had a good accuracy for detecting AKI. KIM-1 72 h postoperatively can predict the renal outcome of obstructive nephropathy. “
“Fibroblast growth factor 23 is reported PLEKHB2 to be a pivotal regulator for the chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders, working in coordinated ways with phosphate, calcium, and parathyroid hormone. However, whether there is a relationship between fibroblast growth factor 23 and magnesium is currently unclear. To address this, we performed a cross-sectional observational study in haemodialysis patients. We measured the serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23, magnesium and other factors that are implicated in chronic kidney disease-mineral

bone disorders in 225 haemodialysis patients. Simple correlation analysis showed that fibroblast growth factor 23 was not correlated with magnesium. However, upon multiple regression analysis, a significant negative correlation was found between fibroblast growth factor 23 and magunesium (b = −0.164, P = 0.0020). Moreover, the levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 in patients treated with magnesium oxide had significantly lower levels than those without magnesium oxide. We speculate that the magnesium is a potential regulator of fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in haemodialysis patients. Our data suggest that follow-up studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie this relationship are warranted.

However it was not fully investigated that how reserve capacity o

However it was not fully investigated that how reserve capacity of single kidney for healthy kidney donor changes after unilateral nephrectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the change of remaining single kidney function after kidney donation and evaluate predictive pre-donation factor for reserved single

kidney capacity in donors. Methods: Total 74 kidney donors who underwent 99mTc-DTPA Scintillation-Camera renography before and after kidney donation were included in this study. The renography measured singl-kidney glomerular filtration rate (sk-GFR) of both kidney before donation and post-donation GFR of remaining kidney during 12 months in donor. We investigated the factors that are associated with reserved capacity of remaining single kidney after donation, such as age, BMI, BSA, serum creatinine for Cock-Croft Gault’s fomula and MDRD GFR, 24 hr urine collection for creatinine clearance selleck kinase inhibitor and kidney volume measured by abdomen CT. Results: After uninephrectomy the mean of serum creatinine increased significantly

(P = 0.000, CH5424802 cell line from 0.77 to 1.07 mg/dL) and the mean measured GFR by the renography declined (P = 0.000, from 112.9 to 74.9 ml/min/1.73 m2). Nevertheless the mean of serum creatinine and mGFR was stabilized during 12 months follow-up period (mGFR at Post-donation, P = 0.165 [6 month 74.9 ± 18.2 vs 12 month 81.4 ± 14.8 ml/min/1.73 m2]). The sk-GFR of remaining kidney significantly increased by 33.6% after uninephrectomy (sk-GFR, P < 0.01 [Pre-nephrectomy 57.9 vs Post-nephrectomy 77.5 ml/min/1.73 m2]). By univariate linear regression BMI, total mGFR, sk-GFR of remaining kidney and total kidney volume at pre-donation was included as independent predictors of change of sk-GFR. Among these, BMI (P = 0.013) and sk-GFR of remaining kidney at pre-donation (P = 0.019) was statistically related to reserved single kidney capacity in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion: After kidney donation, reserved single kidney capacity showed PtdIns(3,4)P2 significant increase due to adaptive hyperfiltration, especially more compensatory

response in donor with lower BMI and sk-GFR of remaining kidney at pre-donation. TSUCHIMOTO AKIHIRO1, NAKANO TOSHIAKI1, MASUTANI KOSUKE1, MATSUKUMA YUTA1, KITADA HIDEHISA2, NOGUCHI HIDEKO1, TSURUYA KAZUHIKO3, TANAKA MASAO2, KITAZONO TAKANARI1 1Departments of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduated School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University; 2Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Graduated School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University; 3Departments of Integrated Therapy for Chronic Kidney Disease, Graduated School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University Introduction: Lymphangiogenesis is often observed in both diseased native kidney and kidney allograft, and correlates with interstitial inflammation. However, there is little information about the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allograft.

The colour reaction was stopped after 30 min and optical density

The colour reaction was stopped after 30 min and optical density was measured at 450 nm using an MRX Revelation plate reader from Dynex Technologies (Chantilly,

VA, USA). C-peptide was measured at (NLMDRL) 6 min after stimulation with 1 mg glucagon administered intravenously, as described previously [32]. All results for T cell and C-peptide are summarized as the mean, and measures of variability are reported as standard error (s.e.). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the best-fitted line, and an analysis of covariance was used to compare slopes between groups over the entire study. Selleck AZD5363 Two-tailed Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to compare results at individual time-points between the treatment

groups. Two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests were used to compare results between individual time-points within the treatment groups. Demographic data, islet autoantibody and T cell responses to tetanus toxoid from patients treated with rosiglitazone and glyburide are shown in Table 1. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), islet autoantibodies, tetanus responses or time since diagnosis between treatment groups at baseline or 36 months (Table 1). Islet-specific T cell responses in both patient groups increased during the first 12 months, becoming check details increased significantly (P < 0·05) compared to baseline Selleck Pazopanib at 9 months of treatment for both patient groups (Fig. 1). However, beginning at 15 months, T cell responses to islet proteins in the rosiglitazone-treated patients became suppressed significantly (P < 0·03). In fact, the T cell responses

to islet proteins in the rosiglitazone-treated patients became negative at 15 months (fewer than four blot sections) and remained negative throughout follow-up (Fig. 1). In contrast, the T cell responses to islet proteins in the glyburide patients remained positive throughout the study (Fig. 1). Mean stimulated C-peptide responses for both glyburide- and rosiglitazone-treated patients are shown in Fig. 2. During the first 12 months of follow-up, at the time T cell proliferation increased, the C-peptide in the glyburide-treated patients remained stable, whereas the C-peptide responses in the rosiglitazone-treated patients declined significantly (P < 0·05). However, after 12 months of follow-up, when islet-reactive T cell responses were suppressed in rosiglitazone-treated patients (Fig. 1), the C-peptide responses in the rosiglitazone-treated patients improved. In contrast, the C-peptide in the glyburide patients was observed to continue to decline throughout the study, reaching significance (P < 0·05) from baseline at 36 months (Fig. 2). Comparison of the glucagon-stimulated C-peptide responses for the rosiglitazone- and glyburide-treated patients demonstrated significant differences (P < 0·05) beginning at 27 months (Fig. 2).

However, mature IEL express no CCR6 In the current study we show

However, mature IEL express no CCR6. In the current study we show clearly

that the expression of CCR6 is related specifically to lin- c-kit+ cells inside CP, as cells outside CP lose CCR6 expression and are found positive for an alternate chemokine receptor not present on CP cells, CXCR3. Although lin- c-kit+ cells express various receptors as determined by PCR analysis, suggesting redundancy, CCR6 also seems to have a functional role, as data published by MacDonald et al.[18] suggest that CCR6 is important for the development of mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) from CP. It can be speculated that CCR6 contributes to similar MAPK Inhibitor Library research buy events inside ILF and Peyer’s patches development as the latter are size-reduced significantly in the absence of a functional CCR6 receptor, while no change in micro-architecture can be found [19]. Most intriguingly, CCR6 seems to differentiate at least two different subsets of lin- c-kit+ cells that have not been find more appreciated in other studies, and the majority (>70%) of lin- c-kit+ cells are indeed found outside CP. Recently, Eberl et al. could show that basically all lin- c-kit+ cells express the orphan receptor RORγt. Immunohistochemical

studies have identified that these cells are located specifically within CP. The authors concluded that these cells are, rather, organizers of induced organized lymphoid tissue in adults (LTi cells) and do not participate in IEL development. However, our data show that the majority is of these cells is CCR6- (CXCR3+) and therefore found outside CP. It remains to be elucidated if both cell types are the progeny of a common precursor or if, functionally, they constitute different cellular lineages. In addition, it can be speculated that subsets of these cells might contribute to the IEL compartment in specialized settings. However, we were not able to find an influence of CCR6/Mip3α on Notch

signalling known to influence αβversusγδ lineage commitment. Strikingly, the flow cytometric phenotype of CCR6+ lin- c-kit+ cells correlates well with earlier data published by Kanamori et al., showing that CP cells are CD8- and partly positive for CD4, Cepharanthine while both types express similar levels of CD25, CD44 and CD127 [1]. Previous studies have attempted to identify CP-like structures in humans, but no clusters of c-kit positive cells could be identified. Initial trials by Moghaddami et al. found lymphoid structures with an epithelium resembling follicle-associated epithelium termed ‘lymphocyte-filled villi’[20]. These structures contain different leucocyte subsets such as major histocompatibility complex class II-positive dendritic cells, memory T cells and a variable amount of B cells. The authors concluded that the human gut does not contain CP. In contrast, ILF were appreciated in humans decades ago [21].

The association of HCMV infection with increased proportions of N

The association of HCMV infection with increased proportions of NKG2C+ cells has been reported in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients [30], solid organ and hematopoietic transplant recipients [31-33], a primary T-cell immunodeficiency [34], as well as in individuals coinfected by other pathogens, for example, HIV-1 [35-37], hantavirus [38], chikungunya [39], HBV, and HCV [40]. Moreover, NKG2C+ NK cells expanded in response to HCMV-infected fibroblasts in vitro, and it was hypothesized that the CD94/NKG2C activating KLR might recognize HCMV-infected cells [41]. Altogether, these observations are reminiscent of the pattern of

response to murine CMV (MCMV) specifically mediated by the Ly49H+ NK-cell subset [42] and, on that basis, it has been speculated that the CD57+ R788 mouse NKG2C+ subset might represent “memory” NK cells [32]. Interestingly, a complete deletion of the NKG2C gene has been reported in Japanese and European blood donors with ∼4% homozygosity and 32–34% heterozygosity rates [43, 44]; yet, whether

this genetic trait may influence the NK-cell PD0325901 chemical structure response to HCMV is unknown. In the present study, the relationship between congenital HCMV infection, NKG2C genotype, and NKR distribution was addressed. An immunophenotypic study was carried out in blood samples from children with evidence of past HCMV infection, either congenital symptomatic (n = 15), asymptomatic (n = 11), or postnatal Atazanavir (n = 11), and from noninfected children (n = 20). NKR expression (i.e., NKG2C, NKG2A, LILRB1, and CD161) was assessed by flow cytometry in NK (CD56+CD3−) and T cells (CD3+). Despite some differences in age distribution, both the proportions and the absolute numbers of NK and T cells were comparable in all four study groups (Table 1). Children with symptomatic congenital infection displayed higher proportions of NKG2C+ and lower percentages of NKG2A+ NK cells than asymptomatic or noninfected groups (Fig. 1). In contrast, the distributions of NKG2C+ and NKG2A+ NK cells were comparable in children with congenital symptomatic and postnatal infection. Remarkably, both the relative and absolute numbers

of LILRB1+ NK cells were markedly increased in symptomatic congenital infection, whereas no significant differences in the proportions of CD161+ NK cells were perceived (Fig. 1). Age, clinical features, and the proportions of NKG2C+ and LILRB1+ NK cells corresponding to cases of symptomatic congenital infection are displayed as Supporting Information Table 1. Multivariate analysis indicated that the immunophenotypic differences observed were independent of age. Studies in dizygotic twins further illustrated the impact of congenital symptomatic infection on the NKR repertoire (Table 2). In a first pair (TP1, 22 months old), only the HCMV-positive symptomatic boy displayed a marked increase of NKG2C+ and LILRB1+ NK cells as well as reduced proportions of NKG2A+ cells, compared to his noninfected sister.

The abluminal membrane and most attached caveolae were devoid of

The abluminal membrane and most attached caveolae were devoid of terbium labeling. selleck inhibitor Dual axis tilting

generated tomograms with better resolution than those acquired from single axis tilting. Reconstructed tomograms revealed discreet, unattached vesicles both labeled with terbium (Figure 3 and Video S1a) and unlabeled (Figure 4 and Video S2). Thresholding and surface rendering of a labeled free vesicle clarified its relationship with other vesicular structures and surface membranes (Video S1b). Translation of a single orthoslice through the model verified the accuracy of the model representing terbium deposition and the vesicle interior (Video S1c). A similar tomographic series through an unlabeled vesicle showed it appearing and disappearing without any connection with

other vesicular compartments (Figure 4, Video S2) In another tilt series, a large membranous compartment was revealed to be connected to selleck both luminal and abluminal membranes (Figure 5). Only the luminal membrane of the compartment exhibited bound terbium indicating the absence of glycocalyx on the abluminal portion of the compartment (Video S3). This structure represents a large thoroughfare through the capillary wall not commonly seen in continuous capillaries. In several regions, vesicles labeled with terbium were attached to the abluminal membrane by a stoma (mouth) (Figure 6, Video S4) and presented the possibility of a transendothelial Carteolol HCl channel. In one instance, a single tomographic

slice indicated a transendothelial channel open to both luminal and abluminal surfaces (Figure 6A). A tomographic series acquired at one of these locations showed a labeled abluminal vesicle that appeared connected to the lumen of the capillary (Figure 7). Creating a model of this vesicular compartment interior by thresholding the terbium revealed a channel-like structure through the capillary wall (Video S5a). An animated journey through the channel was generated with Amira beginning at the abluminal stoma (mouth) of a caveola, a rotation of the camera perspective in mid-channel and backing out through the luminal side (Video S5b) The anatomical correlates of transport pathways across continuous capillary walls have long been a subject of vigorous debate [4,11,18,20,21,23]. Pappenheimer et al. [15] postulated the existence of a single system of small pores (3–5 nm radius) to account for microvascular permeability. Grotte [6] introduced the concept of an additional smaller population of large pores (15–25 nm radius) to account for the transport of larger solutes. These estimates were based on the transendothelial transport dynamics of a range of different-sized solutes. Recent estimates of the ratio of large pores to small pores in skeletal muscle capillaries are about 1/5000 [12].

Recently, a study on Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters has de

Recently, a study on Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters has demonstrated a role for TGF-β in induction of lymphocyte apoptosis (45). Regarding the obtained data, no considerable amount of TGF-β has been detected in cell culture supernatants of asymptomatic carriers in comparison with nonhealing cases, and in both study groups, there was no significant difference PF-01367338 in vitro in the level of TGF-β between uninfected and infected neutrophils. We, therefore, do not think that TGF-β produced by neutrophil has a major impact failure to cure human leishmaniasis.

We here showed that in vitro-infected neutrophils from nonhealing individuals produce a considerable levels of TNF-α, but not TGF-β over background when stimulated with L. major. These results are in line studies demonstrating that TNF-α mRNA production is significantly higher in Leishmania-infected dogs than in controls (46,47). In conclusion, our observations suggest that in the presence of GM-CSF, neutrophil response to CpG-containing DNA sequences may enhance neutrophil response Selleckchem Liproxstatin 1 to Leishmania infection. The neutrophil activation was more effective in the asymptomatic group as compared to nonhealing group. The molecular aspects of this activation system remain to be elucidated and might be interesting to further expand

the data in view of neutrophil extracellular traps contribution in these groups. Induction of NETs and release of antimicrobial components may contribute to the killing of Leishmania parasites before they are engulfed by professional phagocytes (48), although different strains and species of Leishmania induce NET release in a time- and dose-dependent manner (16). In addition, we assessed basal expression levels of three functional human TLR, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, and were able to associate nonhealing Leishmania infection with increased expression of TLR 2, 4 and 9 in neutrophils. Our results suggest that innate recognition

of Leishmania may be incrementally hypersensitized during the development of leishmaniasis. Given that TLR pathways initiate and maintain inflammatory responses (18), the increases in TLR expression may be CYTH4 associated with the enhanced pro-inflammatory signalling, e.g. TNF-α production, seen in nonhealing subjects. An increase in TLR expression in these subjects may serve to increase innate sensing and responsiveness of the immune system and act as a primary driver for immune activation and disease progression. Experimentally, it has been shown that both TLR4 and TLR9 knockout mice are resistant to parasite-induced damage to the intestinal mucosa, and this is associated with decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (49). We would like to thank the participation of such nice people that let us sample their blood.

5 of the control values) When

the same samples were stud

5 of the control values). When

the same samples were studied with P7, an antibody to a different region of the dystrophin protein, the findings were comparable: DMD showed values close to 0.15 of the control, while the BMD sample was 0.6 (Figure 2A). In both cases, the differences between BMD and DMD samples were highly significant (P < 0.001). In both DMD and BMD muscles, a decrease in the associated proteins ASG and BDG was also detected (Figure 2A). While BDG intensity was similarly reduced both in DMD and BMD muscles (0.4 and 0.35 of the control) (Figure 2A), the BMD sample studied showed lower relative intensity of ASG than the DMD sample (0.15 and 0.4 HDAC inhibitor review of the control, respectively). In cases of dystrophin deficiency, UTR is upregulated at the sarcolemma [2]. Our comparative intensity measurements confirmed this: sections

of DMD muscles showed a marked increase in relative intensity compared with the control; the overexpression of UTR was inversely correlated to the depletion of dystrophin (Figure 2). This overexpression was approximately five times the control in the DMD sample (the DMD sample was used as the reference for the capture settings), in which dystrophin was absent and close to three times in the BMD sample. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The analysis of the manifesting carrier sample revealed mean dystrophin intensity selleck products measurements similar to those obtained from the BMD Tangeritin sample (Figure 2A). However, when studying the scatter plots for this sample, a very clear segregation of the fibres was evident. As sections of this sample showed

a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression, with some fibres staining strongly and others more weakly (Figure 1), the study was extended to select 100 measurements of strongly labelling (bright) and 100 measurements of weakly labelling (dim) fibres, instead of the usual random measurements. When these measurements were compared with control muscle, the weakly stained fibres showed values of no significant difference from those in DMD samples, whereas the strongly staining fibres were not as bright as the control (P < 0.001), but showed values of similar intensity as those observed in BMD samples (Figure 2B). In approximately 20% of DMD patients, traces of dystrophin patches of below normal dystrophin-positive areas visible at the sarcolemma of muscle fibres are present [11]. The quantification of this low level of dystrophin expression by Western blotting would require high amounts of samples [20].