Based on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), the eight-se

Based on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), the eight-session, weekly intervention was designed for group delivery via the Internet or telephone. Forty participants were randomly assigned to intervention TPCA-1 mouse or waitlist. Depressive symptoms and other outcomes were measured at baseline, after intervening in the intervention group (similar

to 8 weeks), and after intervening in the waitlist group (similar to 16 weeks). Depressive symptoms decreased significantly more in the intervention group than the waitlist group; Internet and telephone did not differ. This effect persisted over the 8 weeks when those waitlisted received the intervention. Knowledge/skills increased significantly more in the intervention than the waitlist group. All other changes, though not significant, were in the expected direction. Findings indicate that distance delivery of group MBCT can be effective in reducing Epigenetic inhibitor symptoms of depression in people with epilepsy. Directions for future research are proposed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“P>Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GDPD), which hydrolyzes glycerophosphodiesters into sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) and the corresponding alcohols, plays an important role in various physiological processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, little is known about the physiological

significance of GDPD in plants. Here, we characterized the Arabidopsis GDPD family that can be classified into canonical GDPD (AtGDPD1-6) and GDPD-like (AtGDPDL1-7) subfamilies. In vitro analysis of enzymatic activities showed that AtGDPD1 and AtGDPDL1 hydrolyzed glycerolphosphoglycerol, AL3818 glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, but the maximum activity of AtGDPD1 was much higher than that of AtGDPDL1 under our assay conditions. Analyses of gene expression patterns revealed that all AtGDPD genes except for AtGDPD4 were transcriptionally active in flowers and siliques. In addition, the gene family displayed overlapping and yet distinguishable

patterns of expression in roots, leaves and stems, indicating functional redundancy as well as specificity of GDPD genes. AtGDPDs but not AtGDPDLs are up-regulated by inorganic phosphate (P(i)) starvation. Loss-of-function of the plastid-localized AtGDPD1 leads to a significant decrease in GDPD activity, G-3-P content, P(i) content and seedling growth rate only under P(i) starvation compared with the wild type (WT). However, membrane lipid compositions in the P(i)-deprived seedlings remain unaltered between the AtGDPD1 knockout mutant and WT. Thus, we suggest that the GDPD-mediated lipid metabolic pathway may be involved in release of P(i) from phospholipids during P(i) starvation.”
“Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification from filamentous fungi is difficult because of the complex cell wall and the high concentrations of polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids.

Based on the mean field multiple-sublattices model, the estimated

Based on the mean field multiple-sublattices model, the estimated T-C is about 114 K for M = Ti and 1270 K for M Fe, calculated with the experimental lattice constant, in good agreement with the experimental values (128 K and 1093 K for M Ti and Fe, respectively). With increasing lattice constant, a, from 95% to 105% of the experimental value (a(exp).),

the moment per formula unit m(f.u.) changes from 0.43 mu(B) to 1.0 mu(B) and TC increases from 27 K to 142 K in Co2TiGa. However, m(f.u.) increases slightly from 4.98 mu B to 5.40 mu B while T-C decreases from 1330 K to 1190 K with increasing a PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 mw from 95% to 105% of aexp : in Co2FeGa. These different volume dependences of T-C are ascribed to the weak ferromagnetism in Co2TiGa and the strong ferromagnetism in Co2FeGa. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3536637]“
“The authors used clock-drawing performance to assess cognition and predict inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among persons with traumatic brain injury. Clock-drawing performance, as assessed with the Clock Drawing Interpretation Scale,

predicts rehabilitation length of stay as well as Functional Independence Measure scores at the time selleck of neurobehavioral assessment and rehabilitation discharge. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:449-453)”
“This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate Batimastat mouse chamber at 37 degrees C-38 degrees C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23 degrees C-24 degrees C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The results showed that sperm numbers were similar in the two groups (P = 0.23), but after heat treatment, a significant reduction

in the percentage of motile sperm was present (P < 0.0001). Membrane changes of the spermatozoa were investigated by staining with phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated Annexin V, which detects exteriorization of phosphotidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane, and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), which binds to the sperm nucleus when the plasma membrane is damaged. The percentage of spermatozoa showing positive staining with Annexin V-PE or 7-AAD or both, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in heat-exposed mice compared with controls. These results show that whole-body heat exposure to 37 degrees C-38 degrees C induces membrane changes in the epididymal spermatozoa of mice, which may lead to apoptosis.”
“As a group of wonder materials, gold and silver at the nanoscale demonstrate many intriguing properties that cannot be seen from their bulk counterparts.

The hypothetical

The hypothetical

see more invasion also significantly reduced the connectance of the web because the loss of 17 native trematode species eliminated many links.”
“Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) is an enzyme inhibitor which is involved in various biological processes including cell differentiation, tissue regrowth and regeneration. Although PAI-2 has been originally isolated as an extracellular inhibitor of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), recent studies indicate that PAI-2 has other intracellular effects in keratinocyte, such as the component of cornified envelope.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and functional role of PAI-2 during the keratinocyte differentiation.

Methods: We transduced keratinocytes with adenovirus harboring the expression cassette for PAI-2, then examined the effect on keratinocytes differentiation.

Results: When cultured epidermal keratinocytes were treated with 1.2 mM calcium, PAI-2 expression was increased time-dependently at both mRNA and protein levels. The calcium-induced PAI-2 expression was abolished by treatment with p38 MARK inhibitor,

while overexpression of MKK6 led to the increase of PAI-2 expression. When PAI-2 was overexpressed by adenoviral transduction, the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers such as involucrin, keratin 10 and loricrin was markedly increased. Concomitantly, overexpression of PAI-2 resulted in the retardation of cell growth, with the increase of Rb and p53.

Conclusion: These results suggest that PAI-2 has a role for promoting the differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. selleck compound (C) 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 16 types of structural amino acids in infant formula using an automated amino acid

analyzer was validated through tests of precision, accuracy and linearity. The automated analysis of the amino acids was performed on an ion-exchange packed column with a visible detector. The certificated reference material (CRM) 1546 from NIST was used as the test sample to determine the precision and accuracy of the analytical method. The regression analyses revealed good correlations [correlation Akt inhibitor coefficient (r(2))] that were greater than 0.99. The recovery values of the amino acids were ranged from 87.18 to 118.08%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were less than 0.059 mg/100 g and less than 0.198 mg/100 g, respectively. The infra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.62% in the CRM sample.”
“Study Design. A case report.

Objective. To report a rare complication associated with lumbar decompression surgery.

Summary of Background Data. Decompression surgery for lumbar degenerative canal stenosis is one of the most commonly performed spinal procedures.

There are two recent studies that directly compared biologic DMAR

There are two recent studies that directly compared biologic DMARDs with optimal combinations of oral DMARDs and these are important because there are significant differences in costs and side effects p38 MAPK inhibitor review between oral and biologic DMARDs. Among the studies that directly compared biologic DMARDs, it has been reported that RA patients who fail a TNF antagonist have a higher response rate (based on disease activity score [DAS28] measurements)

to treatment with rituximab as compared with another TNF antagonist. In addition, in the ATTEST trial, the investigators found that, for RA patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate, treatment with abatacept versus infliximab resulted in response rates that were roughly equal. There are also several head-to-head studies of biologic DMARDs EGFR activity that are currently enrolling or about to enroll RA subjects. Pharmaceutical companies have taken more interest in comparative effectiveness

studies, in part due to the emphasis that has been placed on this type of research by the US federal government and associated organizations including the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Therefore, while there is currently a relative lack of comparative effectiveness research to inform clinical decisions about biologic DMARDs for RA patients, it appears likely that there will be wider availability of such data in the near future.”
“AimNatural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is currently a very important topic for surgeons. This study aimed to describe the initial clinical experience of transvaginal NOTES for adnexal masses and investigate check details its feasibility and surgical outcome.

MethodsWe performed transvaginal NOTES in seven patients

with adnexal masses through a 2-cm incision in the posterior vaginal fornix. A transvaginal NOTES system comprising a wound protractor and a surgical glove with sheaths was used. Resection was performed according to the method of standard laparoscopic adnexal surgery. The adnexal mass was removed via the incision of the posterior vaginal fornix after complete resection.

ResultsSince June 2011, seven patients have undergone transvaginal NOTES for adnexal masses. All cases were completed successfully without conversion to standard laparoscopic approach. The median age of the patients was 48 years (range, 36-60) and the median body mass index was 23.6 (range, 20.4-25.3). The median tumor size was 6cm (range, 3.7-6.7). The median operative time was 45min (range, 40-80). The estimated blood loss was minimal (range, 5-300mL). The median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-3). No postoperative complications were observed at follow-up. All the patients were very satisfied with the cosmetic result.

ConclusionThe findings show transvaginal NOTES with our method to be a feasible, safe and effective surgical technique that results in excellent cosmesis.

A unique facial structure and deformity of the cervical spine is

A unique facial structure and deformity of the cervical spine is associated with a difficult airway. We report here a 10-year-old girl with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome who developed progressive basilar impression and medullary compression for which foramen magnum decompression was performed. After slow induction of anesthesia, we were able to perform fiberoptic orotracheal intubation via a VBM bronchoscope airway. This case report contributes to the accumulation of knowledge about anesthesia for this rare syndrome.”
“Objective: In an effort to decrease healthcare costs, we investigated

our laboratory billing practices at a tertiary academic medical center to determine where we could apply Sigma Sigma tools to improve these processes.

Methods and Results: During the find protocol period of June 2009 to February 2010, we identified an estimated $1.9 million in charges for laboratory tests performed, but not billed for. Using SIPOC analytics, we determined that a large percentage of these unbilled tests were ordered by outreach services ($529,000). Applying interventions that included creation of CPT-driven lab test requisitions for Medicare-approved test panels, and training physicians and office managers to better match CPT codes with lab requests, we improved the rate of unbilled tests from 25% to 2.6%.

Conclusion: The application of Six Sigma quality improvement tools to the clinical laboratory setting helped identify

specific billing processes to improve (laboratory tests performed but not billed for), apply specific interventions to improve our billing processes, and create solutions to improve and maintain improved performance of our billing practices.”
“Purpose of review

To highlight the recent developments in hemodynamic monitoring during liver and lung transplantation.

Recent findings

Even though a consensus on intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring is still lacking, the most frequently monitoring

tool used is the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). The filling LY2603618 price pressures are widely accepted as not being able to accurately define cardiac preload. On the contrary, the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), although it is operator dependent and requires a prolonged training, is increasing during the intraoperative period to directly evaluate the cardiovascular function. New frontiers have been opened by the transpulmonary thermodilution: intrathoracic blood volume has been shown to have a better correlation with preload than the filling pressures. The advanced modified PAC permits evaluation of the right heart function and preload. Recently, right ventricular end diastolic volume has been shown to correlate better with preload than the filling pressures and also the left ventricular end diastolic area.


The PAC still represents the most used intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring technique. TEE is increasing in popularity.

In the 11 livers surviving 20 years or more, follow-up biopsies w

In the 11 livers surviving 20 years or more, follow-up biopsies were performed

18-20 years post-LTx (n = 10) and 6 years post-LTx (n = 1). Signs of chronic rejection were seen in three cases, with no difference between DCD and HBD. Our analysis with a 20-year follow-up suggests that controlled DCD liver grafts might be a feasible option to increase the donor pool.”
“Evaluation of: Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration; Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J et al.: Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis SB203580 research buy of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomized trials. Lancet 376(9753), 1670-1681 (2010). As the primary target of therapy in the management of dyslipidemia, LDL-C has been a central focus for practicing clinicians for more than a decade. National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines encourage physicians to lower LDL-C levels to outlined therapeutic targets on the

basis of ongoing randomized controlled trials demonstrating significant benefit CA3 in vivo in cardiovascular outcomes among primary and secondary prevention individuals. Relevant epidemiological analysis of cardiovascular outcomes in the USA reports that although statin therapy provides a relative risk reduction of 30%, many coronary heart disease patients at the LDL-C target level are still having major events, of which more than half are recurrent. Although statins – the mainstay of therapy are able to decrease LDL-C by a range of approximately 30-50% depending on the potency and dose of the statin administered, they remain underused in the clinical setting by practicing Elacridar physicians. There also remains controversy as to whether more intensive lowering of LDL-C provides additional

cardiovascular benefit or not. Intensive lowering of LDL-C as it pertains to the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes (including myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and ischemic stroke) is assessed in this meta-analysis of 170,000 individuals from 26 large, randomized controlled trials. The implications of the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration for practicing physicians are discussed here.”
“Study Design. Biomechanical study.

Objective. To compare the relative rigidity of C2 transpedicular versus intralaminar fixation with and without offset connectors in C2-C6 subaxial constructs.

Summary of Background Data. Insufficient biomechanical data exists on C2 laminar fixation in subaxial constructs, and no study has considered C2-C6 subaxial constructs or the use of offset connectors.

Methods. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spines underwent rigidity testing in the intact condition and after a destabilizing C3-C6 laminectomy. Specimens were instrumented with 20 mm pedicle and 20 mm intralaminar screws at C2, and with 14 mm lateral mass screws from C3-C6.

Results-Saline solution treatment resulted in a temporary signifi

Results-Saline solution treatment resulted in a temporary significant increase in SAP diastolic arterial blood pressure, MAP RR, and cortisol, lactate, and NEFA concentrations and a significant decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)). Xylazine treatment induced significant decreases in HR, RR, MAP insulin

and NEFA concentrations, and Sao(2) and induced significant increases in glucose concentration. Compared with saline solution treatment, HR, RR, MAP, Sao(2), and cortisol, lactate, and NEFA concentrations were significantly decreased with xylazine treatment. Xylazine treatment resulted in mild signs of sedation Vorasidenib Metabolism inhibitor as well as clinically negligible ruminal bloat.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Xylazine administered in a low dose to cows preceding lateral recumbency for claw trimming decreased hormonal and metabolic stress responses, but augmented the respiratory depressive effect of lateral recumbency reflected by a decreased Pao(2) and increased Paco(2). (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:1223-1230)”
“Y2-xErxO3 thin films, with x varying between 0 and 0.72, have been successfully grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron cosputtering of Y2O3 and Er2O3 targets. As-deposited films are polycrystalline, see more showing the body-centered cubic structure of Y2O3, and show only a slight lattice parameter contraction when x is increased, owing to the insertion of Er ions. All the

films exhibit intense Er-related optical emission at room temperature both in the visible and infrared STA-9090 supplier regions. By studying the optical properties for different excitation conditions and for different Er contents, all the mechanisms (i.e., cross relaxations, up-conversions, and energy transfers to impurities) responsible for the photoluminescence (PL) emission have been identified, and the existence of two different well-defined Er concentration regimes has been demonstrated. In the low concentration regime (x up to 0.05, Er-doped regime), the visible

PL emission reaches its highest intensity, owing to the influence of up-conversions, thus giving the possibility Of using Y2-xErxO3 films as an up-converting layer in the rear of silicon solar cells. However, most of the excited Er ions populate the first two excited levels I-4(11/2) and I-4(13/2), and above a certain excitation flux a population inversion condition between the former and the latter is achieved, opening the route for the realization of amplifiers at 2.75 mu m. Instead, in the high concentration regime (Er-compound regime), an increase in the nonradiative decay rates is observed, owing to the occurrence of cross relaxations or energy transfers to impurities. As a consequence, the PL emission at 1.54 mu m becomes the most intense, thus determining possible applications for Y2-xErxO3 as an infrared emitting material. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10. 1063/1.

Many had treatment-related symptoms like fatigue (87 7%), hot fla

Many had treatment-related symptoms like fatigue (87.7%), hot flashes (71.5%), and a changed body appearance (55.8%). The majority suffered from distress (56.2%), fewer from anxiety (24.1%) and depression (12.1%). Physical

and social impairment, impaired body image, distress, anxiety and depression, a lack of social support and conflicts in their personal relationships were associated with supportive care needs.

Conclusions: The findings can help to identify more vulnerable patients with unmet needs and a higher demand for support. Assessment of patients enables learn more health care professionals to provide support and counselling. In these assessments, the patients’ relationship to close relatives should also be addressed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction and hypothesis The objective of the study was to determine urogynecology publication rates in obstetrics and gynecology literature.

Methods Original scientific articles from American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) and Obstetrics and Gynecology (Obstet Gynecol) from 1996-2007 were reviewed.

Results A total of 10,192 articles were evaluated. Two trends were noted in the AJOG: percentage of urogynecology articles increased (correlation with year r=0.845; p<0.05) and percentage of obstetric articles click here decreased (negative

correlation r=-0.589; p<0.05). Similarly for Obstet Gynecol, the number of urogynecology articles increased with time with a strong positive correlation of r=0.743 and p<0.05. There was a significant difference in the number of articles published in the AJOG in months with an annual scientific meeting compared to months without (t=-6.34; p<0.001).

Conclusions The numbers of urogynecology articles published in the general literature has increased and may be related

to presentation at national meetings.”
“Background : Recent studies have suggested FK866 mw that implantation site intermediate trophoblasts (ISITs) and chorionic type intermediate trophoblasts (CTITs) show different immunohistochemical findings, and that each type has specific location in placentas. However, we observed that both subtypes are intimately admixed in many areas of the placentas and both types are proliferated around the infarcts. Methods : In order to examine the site specificity in their distribution and the changes of intermediate trophoblasts (ITs), if any, in the pre-eclamptic placentas, quantitative analyses of ISITs and CTITs using p63, CD146, placental alkaline phosphatase, human placental lactogen, and alpha-inhibin were performed in normal and pre-eclamptic placentas containing infarcts. Results : In the fetal membranes of both normal and pre-eclamptic placentas, CTITs and ISITs were equally identified, forming distinct layers. ISITs were predominant in the intervillous septum and basal plate, while CTITs were predominant in the subchorionic area.

A four-factor, five-level rotatable central composite design was

A four-factor, five-level rotatable central composite design was used for the optimization this website procedure. Twenty different formulations (F1-F25) were designed in such a way that sixteen formulations were on the factorial points and eight formulations were on axial points with one centre point using four independent variables: microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102, 30-70%), croscarmellose (Ac-di-sol, 15-7.5%), magnesium stearate (1.25-4.25%) and hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose

(1-5%). The measured dependent response variables were friability and disintegration time. The regression equations obtained from experiment explain the main and interaction effects of factors for designed formulations. Ten different formulations were selected on acceptable weight basis i.e. F2, F4, F7, F12, F13, F17, F18, F20, F23, and F25. Powder blends of all the formulations were assessed by different parameters also test and reference formulations were assessed by different physico-chemical tests which were weight variation, diameter, thickness, assay, dissolution, disintegration, and friability tests. From these optimized formulations only four best formulations were selected such as F4, F12, F20, and F25 while remaining formulations were failed to choose due to their poor flow properties and delayed disintegration time. Dissolution profiles NSC 23766 were

also compared using different dissolution media, i.e. pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 4.5, and pH 6.8. Data were assessed by model dependent methods (Zero-Order, Ferrostatin-1 ic50 First Order, Higuchi model, Korsmeyer Peppas model, Hixson-Crowell cube root law and Weibull model) and model-independent methods f(1)

(difference factor) and f(2) (similarity factor). Results showed that optimized formulations were fitted to Korsmeyer Peppas model and Weibull model at different dissolution media. Similarly, F12 showed smallest (f(1)) values at pH 1.2 (6.52), pH 4.5 (2.42) and pH 6.8 (1.88), F4, F12, F20 and F25 at pH 6.8 were found similar with the reference product. Also the effects of different surfactants on the drug release rate of diclofenac potassium tablets using (1%) Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and (1%) Polysorbate ester (Tween-80) was observed. Results showed that with SLS (1%) maximum drug release was obtained. It was also found that response surface methodology (RSM) showed good correlation between actual and predicted values.”
“A new approach to obtain unique magnetization distribution M and the corresponding internal magnetic field H inside magnetic materials subject to an applied field is introduced. The proposed finite element method obtains M directly by finding the minimum of a given mathematical function W(M)(M) that can be interpreted as the sum of the internal free energy of polarization, and internal and external magnetic energies. According to a theorem in magnetostatics, the magnetization state that satisfies the constitutive equation minimizes W(M)(M) and is unique.

All isolates contained a locus involved in iron uptake, previousl

All isolates contained a locus involved in iron uptake, previously suggested to originate from B. pertussis. The causes for the apparent increase in the isolation of B. holmesii are discussed.”
“To evaluate the endometrial blood flow by two-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound as possible implantation markers and pregnancy predictors in women with and without genital tuberculosis undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycle (IVF-ET).

This was a prospective observational study. A total of 183 infertile women were recruited from our IVF-ET program from January to

December 2009. Women with tubal factor, male factor and unexplained infertility were included in the study.

The age, duration of infertility and BMI of the women were comparable in both the groups. The mean gonadotropin usage in Group 1 was 2,881.3 IU (+/- SD 949.7) GS-4997 Apoptosis inhibitor this website and 3,077.8 (+/- SD 927.9) in Group 2. Total number of eggs obtained, duration (days) of stimulation, Estradiol (E2) concentration and endometrial thickness (in mm) showed no significant difference in the two groups. Even the peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) was not statistically significant between the two groups. Pregnancy and implantation was higher in women with endometrial flow in zone 3 in both the groups though it did not reach any statistical significance.


present study showed no difference in endometrial blood flow and pregnancy rates in patients with or without genital tuberculosis.”
“Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the referral pattern of patients with kidney impairment in Cameroon. Methods. Medical files of patients received at the out-patients department of nephrology from January 2001 to December 2003 at the Yaounde General Hospital were reviewed. Individual information

recorded included age, sex, and referral sources. Data on etiologic and co-morbidity factors, clinical signs of CRF, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and BAY 80-6946 biological variables were recorded. Patients were staged for kidney damage in three groups following an adaptation of the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guide recommendations, using the creatinine clearance derived from the Cockroft-Gault equation. Results. Of the 183 patients received during the study period, 140 (77.8%) fulfilled the entry criteria. Men (70%) were more represented, and mean age was 50.19 +/- 1.07 years. Hypertension (62.1%) and diabetes mellitus (26.4%) were the most frequent risk factors. There was no major difference between men and women for most clinical and biological variables. Patients were referred mostly by cardiologist (31.4%) and general practitioners (29.3%). Late referral (GFR <30 mL/min) encompassed 82.8% of participants.