Seedorf A Semplicini C T Sempos L Serra-Majem G


Schwab J.B. Schwimmer A. Scuteri K. Sebekova U. Seedorf A. Semplicini C.T. Sempos L. Serra-Majem G.

Sesti M. Shah J. Shen L. Shi K. Shoghi S. Shrestha M. Siegrist H. Sies J. Sievenpiper R. Smith C.E. Smith J. Snell-Bergeon F. Sofi A. Solini Y. Song M. Songini G. Sorice F. Soriguer E. Spinedi R.A. Stein E. Stener-Victorin V. Stocchi B. Strasser G.E. Striker I. Strychar A. Sukumar W. Sulowicz G. Sun H. Taegtmeyer K. Taku P.S. Tappia L. Tappy G. Targher A. Tavani A. Tchernof D. Teegarden E. Teijeira-Fernandez L. Temme P. Tessari S. Tessier A. Thanopoulou H. Thibault J. Thomas D. Toniolo M.K. Townsend M.G. Traber G. Tripepi V. Trischitta H. Tsuneki J.A. Tur E.E. Turcotte M.E. Tushuizen J. Ukropec J. Uribarri O. Vaccaro P. Valensi G. Valerio S. Valtuena E. Van Belle E. Van Craenenbroeck R.M. van Dam C.E. van den Brom J. van der Pols G. Van Wye D. Vanuzzo T. Vasankari A. Vatrella see more M. Velussi E.T. Vestergaard P. Vestergaard J. Viikari N. Vilarrasa D.T. Villareal H.K. Vincent F. Visioli S.L. Volpe A. von Eckardstein M.B. Vos T. Vrijkotte K. Walker L. Wang X. Wang E. Warensjo J. Warnberg J. Watson K.T. Weber

M. Weickert K. Weinger E.P. Weiss F.K. Welty S.L. White R.A. Whitmer I. Wilcox A.L. Willig E. Windler K.K. Witte T.M.S. Wolever T. Yamaguchi H. Yan A.I. Younis F. Zaccardi Daporinad research buy A. Zambon S. Zambon M. Zamboni M. Zeyda A. Zittermann G. Zoppini G. Zuliani “
“The Acesulfame Potassium Editors are grateful to all the members of the editorial board and to the following colleagues for their extremely valuable help in the editorial process in 2011: N. Abate T.C. Adam G.F. Adami L.A. Afman C. Agnoli C. Agostoni P. Agostoni M. Aikawa R. Ajjan E. Alasaarela C. M. Albert

F. Albuquerque N.M. Al-daghri L.H. Allen G.L. Ambrosini G.Ø. Andersen G. H. Anderson S. Anderson F. Angelico K. Anil A. Arnaiz F. Arturi J. F. Ascaso V.G. Athyros A. Atkin D. Aune A. Avignon A. Avogaro A. Aziz M. Azizi S. Aznar G.H. Bahrami P. Balagopal D. Baldassarre B. Balkau K.D. Ballard J. Ballesteros N.M. Bandarra N. Barengo J. Barnard M.G. Baroni T. Barringer M.T. Barrio López E. Bartoli S. Basili J.A. Bauer J. Bauersachs K.B. Baumgartner A. Baylin C. Beauloye G. Bedogni D. D. Belke S. Bellentani A. Bellia A.P. Beltrami J. Beltrand A. Benetos K. Berger P. Bergman F. Bernini S.E. Berry S. Bertolini G. Biagini G. Biolo F. Biscetti H. Bjermo L. Blais S.N. Bleich G.J. Boersmaa S. Bokor F. Bolaños-Jiménez P.Jr. Bolin G. Bolli N. Boon S. Booth D.A. Booth G. Bos L. Bozzetto A. Branchi J.C. Brand-Miller S.J. Brener F. Brites M. Brochu K.G. Brodovicz C.M. Brown I. Brown C. Brufani N.S. Bryan M. Bucci M. Buckingham B. Buijsse S. Bunnapradist R. Burcelin B.M. Burton-Freeman L. Butler N.F. Butte N.M. Byrne P. Calabrò K.L.

The greatest number of genes was affected at the 6 + 4 h time poi

The greatest number of genes was affected at the 6 + 4 h time point, and these included Dhcr7, Fdft1, Fdps, Hmgcr, Idi1, Mvd, Mvk, Nqo1, Pmvk, Sc5dl, and Sqle ( Fig. 8). The majority of these genes are involved in the mevalonate and squalene synthesis portions of the pathway. Although no studies have been conducted to specifically investigate the effect of marijuana smoke on lipid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis, early investigations using rodent cells have shown that cannabinoids can affect lipid metabolism, and the effects include an increase in lipolysis in adipose tissue (Wing and Paton, 1978), the inhibition of corticosteroidogenesis (Warner et al., 1977), and

the reduced testosterone and progesterone production (Burstein et al., 1979 and Burstein et al., Roscovitine clinical trial 1978). The cannabinoid CBD has also been shown to affect cholesterol metabolism in human fibroblasts and aortic medial cells through the inhibition of cholesteryl ester formation (Cornicelli et al., 1981). In the present study, HMG-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was notably down-regulated for the

medium and high concentrations of MSC at both time points. Previous in vitro investigations with THC have shown that this cannabinoid reduces Hmgcr by 29% ( Rimmerman et al., 2011), whereas CBD had no effect on Hmgcr levels ( Cornicelli et al., 1981 and Rimmerman et al., 2011). When comparing TSC and MSC exposed cells, the Biosynthesis of Steroids Pathway was also significant for TSC, particularly for the 6 + 4 h Olopatadine time point. However, only one to three Sorafenib chemical structure genes were perturbed, depending on the concentration. These genes included Fdps, Ggps1, Nqo1, and Hmgcr. The LXR/RXR pathway, which is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cholesterol to bile acid catabolism, was also significantly down-regulated at the 6 + 4 h time point in both MSC and TSC exposed cells. Of note in this pathway is Ldlr, which is the greatest down-regulated

gene in MSC exposed cells. This gene was down-regulated 10 fold following the highest MSC exposure concentration but only 1.6 fold following the highest TSC exposure. Exposure to MSC but not TSC appears to have affected apoptosis pathways. Genes in the TWEAK Signaling, TNFR1 and TNFR2 Signaling Pathways (Birc3, Nfkbia, Tnfaip3, Pak3, Fos, Jun, Tnfrsf12a) were significantly up-regulated following exposure to MSC particularly at the 6 h time point. The up-regulation of these particular genes suggests that MSC inhibits apoptosis and may promote a TNF receptor mediated survival pathway. In a previous study, Sarafian et al. investigated the effects of marijuana smoke and tobacco smoke on apoptosis and necrosis in A549 lung tumor cells (Sarafian et al., 2001). They found that both tobacco and marijuana whole smoke inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis but promoted necrotic cell death.

In foods, Maillard reaction is actually a series of subsequent an

In foods, Maillard reaction is actually a series of subsequent and parallel reactions that can occur simultaneously, influenced by each other as well as by the medium composition

[3]. Hodges proposed that they occur in three different stages, and each one would be characterized by the generation of certain products (markers) that would, then, indicate the severity of the heat treatment as well as the LDK378 loss of nutritional value, due to the blockage of the essential amino acid lysine. Actually the decrease in the protein biological value and the decrease in bioavailability of essential aminoacids (mainly lysine), due to heating or storage, were among the main drivers for the advances about Maillard reaction and products in foods. A few years after Hodge’s publication, in 1955, the discovery of the glycated form of hemoglobin, by Kunkel and Wallenius [4] and, later, in 1968, Rahbar [5] findings that HbA1c (an hemoglobin in which the N-terminal valine of the β chain of HbA is glycated) was elevated in the red blood cells from diabetic patients, confirmed Maillard’s prediction that this reaction happens in vivo and could be implicated in pathological conditions. Advances in this field were accelerated from the earlier 1980s, after Monnier’s

group pioneer work about glycation in lens proteins, proving that cross-linking of long life-span proteins resulted in pathological consequences, which was further observed in other tissues as vascular vessels and collagen [6]. In the sequence, other pioneer works linked glycation Lapatinib cell line to oxidation of macromolecules and the pathological conditions and aging. Several good reviews are now available [1], [7], [8], [9••], [10•], [11], [12], [13] and [14]. The non-enzymatic browning reaction in the human body is referred as glycation, and the products generated are known as Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). There seems to be a consensus

among several researchers, that Maillard reaction (MR) and Maillard reaction products (MRP) are to be used to describe the non-enzymatic browning reaction in foods (or model systems) while glycation and AGEs are the terms to be used when referring to the reaction occurring within the living organism. Some confusion Galeterone is, yet, found on the use of this terminology since recent published papers use MR and glycation and AGEs and MRP indistinctively as synonyms. The pathways of the in vivo and in vitro reaction have been extensively reported [10•], [13], [15••] and [16] and will not be described in this paper. Irreversible modifications of protein structure, functionality and turnover are due to the cross-linking reaction and AGEs generation. These modifications, in turn, enhance the pathophysiological processes associated with diabetes and kidney diseases, as well as the development of atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Application of lime at the levels from 0 to 250 kg ha− 1 signific

Application of lime at the levels from 0 to 250 kg ha− 1 significantly increased leaf area index, number of leaves plant− 1, plant height, and number of branches plant− 1. The favorable influence of liming on growth of legumes is due to the indirect effect of increasing the nitrogen availability to the plants through increased nitrification by moderating the pH in acid soils [17], [18] and [19]. A positive influence

of liming on legume growth has been reported [20]. Plant height was significantly increased by the application of lime. Reduced height may be attributed to the toxic effect of soil acidity, which may lead to stunting of plants growing in lime-untreated soil [21]. Similarly, yield attributes of ricebean increased with increasing levels of lime. This increase may be due to improvement of soil pH and other physico-chemical

selleck properties of soil that increases the plant availability of soil FG-4592 datasheet nutrients [22] and [23]. The grain and straw yields of ricebean realized with application of lime at 0.6 t ha− 1 were 76.4, 77.2 and 39.1, 38.5% greater than those of the control. The increase in yield may be due in part to the neutralization of exchangeable Al3 + ions and an increase in available Ca2 +, which, in turn, resulted in excellent grain filling. The better uptake of nutrients facilitated by liming increased vegetative growth and resulted in increased dry matter production and ultimately seed yield

of ricebean [23]. Application of gypsum and lime neutralized exchangeable Al3 +, improving the uptake and concentration of P in soybean [24], [25] and [26]. Common bean genotypes showed higher yield and yield components when grown in lime treated soil than lime-untreated soil, which led to an average yield reduction of 26% due to the soil acidity effect [27]. This improvement may be ascribed to the optimization by liming of nutrient availability and utilization, reduction of levels of available Al and Mn, enhancement of N2 fixation in legumes, and improvement in the microbial-aided process of organic matter breakdown [28]. All treatments improved the harvest index compared to the control, second indicating that the treatments promoted better partitioning of food reserves to sinks via effective photosynthetic activity performed by the sources (photosynthetic parts of plant). The addition of lime increased soil pH, an effect that may have accelerated the process of mineralization of nitrogen, leading to higher protein content and protein yield of ricebean cultivars. The increase in availability of nitrogen in the soil following liming may have resulted from an increase in soil pH that accelerated the rate of decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. Nitrogen fixation may be also increased by increasing microbial activity under a favorable soil environment.

A description of the phenomenon with the volume scattering functi

A description of the phenomenon with the volume scattering function assumes

the single scattering model (a particular photon does not interact with more than one particle of emulsion). The correctness of such a description of a real phenomenon has been tested for light scattering at right angles in a Baltic crude oil – seawater emulsion ( Stelmaszewski et al. 2009). The spectral dependence of the calculated function for wavelengths from 380 nm to 730 nm was compared with the measured scattering spectrum. This test has shown that the scattering function β corresponds to experimental results and that the single scattering model does provide an adequate description of the phenomenon. Application of this model under natural conditions to the scattering of solar radiation in polluted seawater needs to take into consideration the fluorescence of the emulsions. Adriamycin chemical structure This is important because petroleum is a fluorescent medium. Emulsion particles are fluorescent objects

and, moreover, dissolving the fluorescent compounds can accompany emulsifying oil in water. The test mentioned above was carried out for monochromatic radiation (the scattered light measured had the same wavelength as the illuminating radiation), and fluorescence remained undetected in these measurements. In the case learn more of polychromatic radiation like natural sunlight, the separation of fluorescence from scattering appears SPTLC1 to be impossible. The foregoing indicates that any investigation of light scattering in an oil-in-water emulsion should be supplemented by a study of its fluorescence properties. This is the subject of this paper: it discusses the fluorescence of emulsions of seven different oils representing the main petroleum types. These emulsions were tested in the spectral range from 220 nm to 720 nm. The important question was to determine how photoluminescence can influence light scattering measurements. To this end, fluorescence and scattering

spectra were measured and the intensities of these phenomena compared. The test was carried out on seven different types of petroleum: two crude oils of differing properties (Baltic and Romashkino), two fuels, as well as lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils. Samples of each oil were emulsified in seawater. Because the water should be assumed to be a non- fluorescent and fully transparent medium, it was prepared by dissolving the principal sea salts in demineralized water to achieve an ionic composition similar to that of natural water of salinity 7.5 PSU. The emulsion was prepared as follows. An aliquot of oil (3 cm 3) was dissolved in n-hexane (2 cm 3), and this solution was stirred with water (3 dm3) in a stainless steel vessel at 600 rpm for 3 hours. The emulsion was then allowed to stabilize at 20°C for 24 hours.

Further, because paraspinal and PS muscles have different nerve s

Further, because paraspinal and PS muscles have different nerve supplies (dorsal vs. ventral rami of lumbar nerves, respectively) Everolimus ic50 and MFI is increased bilaterally, denervation is not considered a plausible explanation in the current study. Finally, the positive correlation between fatty infiltration and episode frequency (mean: 4.4, min: 2, max: 9 per year; R2 = 0.450), may suggest a role for nociception in fatty infiltration.

This assumption is consistent with previous observations of generalized inhibition of MF, ES and PS recruitment with experimentally-induced pain ( Dickx et al., 2008; D’Hooge et al., submitted for publication). Further research is required to determine if peripheral nociception is involved in fatty infiltration via a reflex-mediated decrease in neural drive. Previously, Hultman

et al. (1993) found no difference in paraspinal muscle density on CT during remission of intermittent LBP. Results of fatty infiltration in the presence of LBP are less consistent than CSA measures. Some authors demonstrate increased fatty infiltration (Parkkola et al., 1993; Hultman et al., 1993; Mengiardi, 2006; Kjaer et al., 2007), whereas others show no difference to healthy controls (McLoughlin et al., 1994; Danneels et al., 2000; Kjaer et al., 2007). The discrepancy in results may be due to methodological BIBF 1120 manufacturer differences such as the ROI in which fatty infiltration is determined (total vs. lean muscle, isolated MF vs. paraspinals grouped) or measuring technique (qualitative vs. quantitative, CT vs. MRI). The current study measured fatty infiltration

in two complementary modes yielding divergent results: lean fatty infiltration was increased, without macroscopic alterations. Similarly, Mengiardi (2006) revealed increased metabolic fat content with proton MR spectrocoscopy, which was not detectable with a semi-quantitative visual grading system using conventional MRI. Using a multifaceted approach to investigate lumbar muscle structure, the current study showed that fatty infiltration in lean muscle tissue was increased, without alterations in muscle size or macroscopic fat deposition during Linifanib (ABT-869) remission of LBP. This emphasizes the importance of differentiating muscle quantity (CSA) and quality (composition). In this respect, Elliott et al. reported enlarged cervical muscle CSAs and fatty infiltration in relation to whiplash-associated disorders, acknowledging that caution must be exercised during interpretation of CSA measurements in the presence of intramuscular fat (Elliott et al., 2008a, 2010). Similarly, lean fatty infiltration may be masking a reduction in muscle size in our results. It is assumed that fatty infiltration may negatively affect muscle contractility when muscle fibers are replaced with non-contractile tissue. Consequently, the deteriorated muscle composition may contribute to LBP recurrence.

Yet American physicians are becoming increasingly aware of the be

Yet American physicians are becoming increasingly aware of the benefits of ESD. Simplification of technique, modification of tools and materials, and improved availability of training opportunities are essential in order to accelerate the adoption of ESD in the United States. Index 321 “
“Charles J. Lightdale Tonya Kaltenbach and Roy Soetikno Matthew AZD5363 D. Rutter Patients with inflammatory bowel disease

colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer compared with the general population. Colonoscopic surveillance remains challenging because the cancer precursor (dysplasia) can have a varied and subtle endoscopic appearance. Although historically the dysplasia was often considered endoscopically invisible, today with advanced endoscopic see more understanding, technique, and imaging, it is almost always visible. The frequency of different dysplasia morphologies and true clinical significance of such lesions are difficult to determine from retrospective series, many of which were performed prior to the current endoscopic era. Silvia Sanduleanu and Matthew D. Rutter Interval colorectal cancers (CRCs) may account for approximately one half of

all CRCs identified during IBD surveillance. The etiology of interval CRCs is multifactorial, with procedural factors likely to play a major role. Molecular events promoted by inflamed mucosa may

augment the cancer risk and perhaps explain some interval CRCs. This article reviews key studies relating to CRC risk in the patient with IBD, paying particular attention to the occurrence of interval CRCs. The most common factors implicated in the etiology of interval CRCs, in particular missed, incompletely resected lesions, the adherence to recommended surveillance intervals and biologic pathways associated with a faster progression to cancer are examined. Basic concepts for quality and effectiveness of colonoscopic surveillance in IBD are summarized. Rachel Zarrow, Alison Zarrow, and Hilary Zarrow This article advocates the use of chromoendoscopy to detect flat lesions over the use of colonoscopy alone. The authors illustrate their point Aspartate by telling the story of their father, who died of colon cancer despite following the gold standard inflammatory bowel disease protocol. Christopher G. Chapman and David T. Rubin It has been proposed that effective disease control through abrogation of inflammation in IBD may also reduce CRC risk in these individual patients. This article summarizes the potential for medical therapy to reduce the risk of CRC via primary and secondary prevention, and offers practical ways in which a goal of mucosal improvement or healing may be incorporated into clinical practice.

In a previous study, we constructed a Tn5-tagged PXO99A mutant li

In a previous study, we constructed a Tn5-tagged PXO99A mutant library, consisting of 24,192 Xoo transformants (clones), with a six times coverage of the PXO99A genome [11]. In an attempt to identify major virulence genes in PXO99A, we screened the library and isolated mutants with reduced virulence. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a hrcQ-Tn5-insertion mutant PXM69 with

no virulence in host rice and no ability to elicit HR in non-host tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). We found that reintroduction of the hrcQ gene could only partially complement the loss of pathogenic function in PXM69. Xoo strains used in this study were PXO99A (wild-type) and its

mutants such as PXM69. Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used Vemurafenib mw in constructing plasmids for marker exchange mutagenesis. Xoo strains were grown at 28 °C on TSA Idelalisib medium (tryptone, 10 g L− 1; sucrose, 10 g L− 1; glutamic acid, 1 g L− 1; and agar, 15 g L− 1; pH 6.8–7.0) or NB medium (peptone, 5 g L− 1; yeast extract, 1 g L− 1; sucrose, 10 g L− 1; and beef extract, 3 g L− 1; pH 6.8 − 7.0). The E. coli strain was grown at 37 °C in Lutia − Bertani medium (tryptone, 10 g L− 1; yeast extract, 5 g L− 1; and sodium chloride, 10 g L− 1; pH 6.8–7.0). The broad host-range vector pHM1 was used to produce complementary constructs. Antibiotics used in the study were ampicillin (Amp) 100 μg mL− 1, kanamycin (Km) 50 μg mL− 1, spectinomycin (Sp) 100 μg mL− 1, and rifampicin (Rf) 50 μg mL− 1. The indica rice cultivar JG30, highly susceptible to PXO99A, was planted

in the field or in a greenhouse reaching 28–32 °C in daylight hours. Inoculations were performed on the plants at the maximum tillering stage (40 to 50 days old) by the leaf-clipping method [12]. N. benthamiana Urocanase plants were grown in a growth cabinet under standard conditions (day and night temperatures of 25 °C and 20 °C, respectively), with 16 h light (30 to 40 μmol s− 1 m− 2) and 50%–60% humidity. Expanded leaves of 5- to 7-week-old plants were inoculated using a needleless syringe [10]. The pathogenicity of all Xoo strains was evaluated using the leaf-cutting method [12]. In the first round of screening for Tn5-insertion mutants, saturated cultures of Xoo strains grown in TSA medium were pelleted down and re-suspended in sterile distilled water (SDW) at an optical density of 1.0 at 600 nm (OD600 1.0). Scissors dipped in the inocula were used to clip fully expanded leaves of JG30. Disease symptoms were recorded two weeks after inoculation.

Clonality of P falciparum infection was assessed as described pr

Clonality of P. falciparum infection was assessed as described previously. 32 Bacteraemia with metabolically active

Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS) was determined using quantitative PCR on cDNA. 33 Statistical analyses were performed using PASW statistics 18 (SPSS Inc.), GraphPad Prism (GraphPad Software Inc.) and the R-statistical software (R Foundation). Data was log10 transformed for parametric analyses Selisistat manufacturer to achieve normality, except sequestered biomass (comprising positive and negative values) which was analyzed with non-parametric methods. Unpaired t-tests and likelihood-ratio tests were used to compare means and medians, respectively, of groups. Confounding by age, prior

antimalarial treatment and clonality of infection was assessed by quantile regression (“quantreg” package, R-statistical software): a model including only intercept was compared by means of likelihood-ratio tests to models with any combination of the above covariates or interaction terms. Correlation was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. BIBF 1120 in vitro To allow for the multiplicity of tests resulting from multiple responses and multiple comparisons within a response, a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% was assumed, using the Benjamini and Hochberg approach. 34 Power of likelihood-ratio tests for detecting an X-fold difference in medians was determined by bootstrapping (10,000 replicates):

re-sampled data from the distribution of sequestered-parasite either biomass estimates was compared with a similar sample to which (X − 1) times the median sequestered biomass was added. Sensitivity analyses assessed the range within which each model parameter could be varied without rejection of the null hypothesis of equal median sequestered biomass among groups. In addition, the effect of joint variation in the parameters was assessed by sampling 10,000 candidate values from uniform distributions within the limits defined for each individual parameter, determining the frequency with which the likelihood-ratio test did not reject the null hypothesis. The effect of parameter variation on the Spearman’s rank correlation between lactate and sequestered biomass was assessed identically. Complete clinical and laboratory data (Fig. 1) were available from 296 children (Tables 1 and 2), 127 (42.9%) with SM, of whom 5 died (Fig. 2). Children with SM were younger, more anaemic and thrombocytopaenic, and had higher blood lactate, parasitaemia, parasite density, plasma PfHRP2 concentrations, circulating parasite biomass, and total parasite biomass (calculated from PfHRP2 concentration) than children with UM (Table 2 and Fig. 3A).

3 and 1 0 g) [40], while 8 week-old growing mice exhibited a posi

3 and 1.0 g) [40], while 8 week-old growing mice exhibited a positive response in trabecular and cortical bone [38] and [39]. Investigations of WBV as a treatment for osteoporosis have shown

a positive impact on ovariectomized rats with greatest increase in bone mass at high frequencies [34], [41] and [43] while other investigation reported only an impact on cortical bone AZD8055 cell line [42] or no substantial impact [45]. These variable results suggest a more complex involvement of the hormonal system in the mechano-sensitivity of bone to WBV. Interestingly, a positive osteogenic response to “limb vibration” in the absence of weight-bearing has been observed, suggesting an additional mechano-transduction pathway than pure selleck chemicals bone strain [9] and [46]. Previous WBV studies on both patients and

animals indicate that vibration is most effective in young growing bone and low density bone. Therefore WBV treatment may offer a promising route to non-invasively stimulate bone formation in OI children. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of WBV on the cortical and trabecular bone formation in growing mice suffering a severe form of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim mice). All animal experiments followed the British Home office and institutional guidance (project license 70/6852). 24 Homozygous wild type (B6C3Fe-a/a-+/+) and 24 homozygous oim (B6C3Fe-a/a-oim/oim) female mice were bred. Due to a procollagen α2 gene AMP deaminase recessive mutation, homozygous oim mice produce abnormal homotrimeric collagen type I (Col1-(α1)3) which results in a phenotype mimicking the human type III osteogenesis imperfecta (small body weight, skeletal deformities and brittle bones) [47].

Starting at 3 weeks of age (just after weaning), 12 mice from each genotype group (vibrated groups: Wild vib and oim vib) were placed into a custom built WBV transparent plastic cage for 15 min per day, 5 days in a week during 5 weeks. The cage was vibrated vertically at a frequency of 45 Hz and a peak acceleration of ± 0.3 g. This vibration regimen was demonstrated to be osteogenic on young growing mice [38] and [39]. The vibration cage had 8 slots (10 ∗ 10 cm each so that 8 mice could vibrate simultaneously) and was mounted on a linear electromagnetic actuator (LAL95-015-70F linear actuator and LAC-1 controller, SMAC Europe Ltd., UK). The linear actuator provided a sinusoidal vertical movement and was force-controlled by a custom made LabVIEW program (NI Corporation Ltd., USA) via a laptop computer and a digital acquisition card (NI USB-6211 multifunction DAQ, NI Corporation Ltd., USA). The actuator was powered by a generator (HY3005D-2, Rapid Electronics Ltd., UK). The acceleration was monitored via an accelerometer (DE-ACCM3D, Dimension Engineering LTD, USA) fixed in the middle of the vibrating cage and the force of the actuator was operator-tuned to obtain a maximum peak acceleration of ± 0.3 g.