Instead, this behavior

is determined by either undetected

Instead, this behavior

is determined by either undetected medical problems (such as asymptomatic urinary tract infections or pneumonia) or elements in the environment that trigger, sustain, or extinguish the observed behavior. The elements of triggering, sustaining, or extinguishing agitated behaviors vary from individual to individual as well as from behavior to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behavior.105 The BICU strategy calls for intensive behavioral mapping and treatment. The treatment consists of two steps: (i) design and implementation of therapeutic interventions; and (ii) modification of the environment to which the person will return, including caregiver training. The therapeutic learn more interventions are designed to achieve two goals: (i) modify the stimuli that cause the agitated behavior (environmental,

medical, and/or psychiatric), and (ii) if the stimuli causing the behavior cannot, be extinguished, then Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the social and physical environment, is modified in such a way that, the targeted behavior can be accepted. BICU goals are achieved by placing the person with the agitated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behavior(s) in a short-term unit, where a. thorough medical, psychiatric, and functional assessment is conducted. ‘ITtic agitated bchavior(s) is specifically identified and evaluated. An individualized treatment, plan is designed, implemented, and continually assessed. Discharge Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical planning should begin at the time of admission and the return environment, be assessed and modified as necessary. Family /caregiver education, training, and counseling should be provided. Follow-up visits to the home after discharge can be well suited to evaluating the effectiveness of the BICU interventions.102 Restraint-free environments As the 1990 Nursing Home Reform Act states: “The resident has the right to be free from any physical restraints imposed for the purpose of discipline or convenience and not required to treat the resident’s medical symptoms.”106 The use of physical restraints in nursing homes has long been debated among staff, physicians,

administrators, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and advocates for the elderly.107 Cediranib (AZD2171) Even before the Federal regulations were enacted in 1990, there was a grassroots movement exploring the use of such restraints. The Kendal Corporation, a nonprofit entity that manages several nursing homes, had successfully operated these facilities as restraint-free environments for many years. In 1991, Kendal initiated “Untie the Elderly,” a project to increase awareness and educate others throughout the country on how to become a restraint-free facility. Traditionally, the rationale for using physical restraints includes the concern for safety risks such as falls, the need to prevent self-injury, legal liability issues, and trying to compensate for inadequate or untrained staff. However, there are no scientific data to suggest that restraints prevent falls.

Not surprisingly, PTSD patients show substantial amygdala activat

Not surprisingly, PTSD patients show substantial amygdala activation to stimuli related to the events that caused the disorder. Thus, combat veterans with PTSD show Pfizer Licensed Compound Library in vitro exaggerated amygdala activation to war scenes, relative to non-PTSD controls.48 Interestingly,

they also show exaggerated amygdala activity to fear stimuli unrelated to combat, such as fearful faces.49 However, PTSD patients have reduced mPFC activity in response to these stimuli,48-50 and this often correlates with the degree of disorder. It is possible that there is exaggerated amygdala activation in PTSD because there has been a loss of mPFC inhibition Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the amygdala. Many of the events that induce PTSD are ones over which the individual has little behavioral control Not all of the individuals who experience these events develop PTSD, and it may be that earlier experiences with control or other forms of coping protect against the development of the disorder by biasing the mPFC to respond actively, thereby maintaining inhibition Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the amygdala, and perhaps other stress-responsive structures. Selected abbreviations and acronyms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5-HT serotonin CE central nucleus of amygdala CS conditioned

stimulus DRN dorsal raphe nucleus ES escapable shock IS inescapable shock LC locus coeruleus mPFCv medial prefrontal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cortex mPFC ventral medial prefrontal cortex PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder US unconditioned stimulus
Recent advances In molecular

genetics have stimulated basic and clinical research, and opened up access to hypothesis-driven and unbiased genetic approaches. With knowledge of the genes Involved in complex basic functions like the stress response, and of multifactorial diseases like stress-related disorders, we can Improve our understanding of the mechanisms and moderators Involved In the biology Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of normal and altered stress response, which In turn will help to Identify new drug targets and Interventions for stress-related disorders. Stress response and stress-related disorders Though there is no generally accepted definition, stress Is usually Linifanib (ABT-869) defined as a state of disturbed homeostasis evoking a multiplicity of somatic and mental adaptive reactions, which are summarized as stress response aiming to reconstitute the initial homeostasis or allostasis,1 ie, a new level of homeostasis after successful adaptation.2 The pioneer of stress research, Hans Selye, claimed a stimulus-independent nonspeciflcity of the stress response3,4 which has been criticized by others.1,5,6 Nevertheless, different kinds of stressors, physical and psychosocial, lead equivocally to a rapid activation of the sympathetic nervous system followed by a stimulation of the hypothalamlc-pitultary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis.

Of the 70 patients, 34 underwent transapical TAVI and 36 underwen

Of the 70 patients, 34 underwent transapical TAVI and 36 underwent surgical AVR. The primary endpoint of all-cause mortality, stroke, and renal failure requiring dialysis was elevated in TAVI vs. AVR: 14.7% vs. 2.8%,

P=0.07. Death rate for TAVI was higher (8.8% vs. 0%) as was stroke (5.9% vs. 2.8%). The incidence of moderate/severe aortic insufficiency was 13% vs. 0%. The authors of this small trial concluded that in these lower-risk elderly patients, transapical TAVI may be inferior to surgical AVR. These surgical results resemble those obtained in our own series of elderly (>80 years) surgical AVR patients. Conclusion While Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical TAVI seems like a low-risk and simple catheter-based therapy compared with surgical AVR, it is still in its Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical developmental

phase and should be considered a major intervention with the risks of serious early and late complications. It is of proven value in the care of patients considered to be inoperable because of extensive irreversible comorbidities or frailty.16 We feel that in experienced centers, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical conventional surgery is feasible in most patients despite advanced age. In our own data, age alone has not been a predictor of mortality, but rather mortality is associated with easily identifiable extensive comorbidities and frailty. It is generally agreed that patients should be seen for a surgical evaluation before a final decision is made to employ TAVI. This recommendation is in agreement with that of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical FDA, which has approved TAVI only for treatment of inoperable patients. Both conventional AVR and TAVI will continue to improve. Results of ongoing and future studies will influence patient selection for each of these valuable therapies. Selleck Alvespimycin Conflict of Interest Disclosure:

All author has Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical completed and submitted the Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal Conflict of Interest Statement and none were reported. Funding/Support: The author has no funding disclosures.
Introduction Degenerative aortic stenosis is the most common acquired valvular heart disease in the developed countries, affecting more than 300,000 people in the United States alone.1 Symptoms of aortic stenosis are latent until there is critical narrowing of the aortic valve that results in left ventricular hypertrophy, increased left ventricular diastolic pressure and left ventricle mass, and increased myocardial oxygen demand causing subendocardial ischemia.2 Once symptoms develop, the prognosis old changes dramatically unless the aortic stenosis is corrected.2 Surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) is the recommended therapy for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The most recent American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for sAVR are found in Table 1.3 It is important to note that none of these recommendations are based on evidence from large-scale, randomized clinical trials but instead rely on the expert opinion of experienced clinicians.

The underlying structural and functional pathology is insufficie

The underlying structural and functional pathology is insufficiently understood, and there is no objective diagnostic test or validated biological marker that could provide a secure anchor for either clinical decision-making or biological and epidemiological research. Recurrent controversies in schizophrenia

research concern its delimitation from other psychoses, bipolar affective disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders; the validity of the schizophrenia spectrum concept and the existence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of subclinical forms, such as schizotypal disorder; the utility of its categorical classification as compared with descriptive symptom dimensions or subtypes based on quantitative cognitive traits,2 and the discordances between the ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for its Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical diagnosis. The aim of the present paper is to highlight aspects of the origin, evolution, and current state of the diagnostic concept of schizophrenia – ending with a

speculation about its future prospects. A brief overview of the history of the concept Kraepelin and the construction of dementia praecox The disease concept of schizophrenia is of a relatively recent origin, as compared with disorders such as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical melancholia, mania, or generic “PF-562271 chemical structure insanity,” all known since antiquity. By the middle of the 19th century, European psychiatrists began describing disorders of unknown causes, typically affecting the young, and often progressing to chronic deterioration. In France, Morel3 referred to such cases as démence précoce, while in Scotland, Clouston4 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coined the term “adolescent insanity.” In Germany, Kahlbaum5 delineated the catatonic

syndrome, and his disciple Hecker6 described hebephrenia. However, it was Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) who proposed to integrate those varied clinical pictures into a single nosological entity under the name of “dementia praecox,” based on his longitudinal observations of a large number of clinical cases exhibiting a common pattern of course which ultimately resulted in severe cognitive and behavioral decline. Elaborating on the description of the disorder in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical successive editions of his Textbook,7,8 Kraepelin acknowledged the diversity of the clinical pictures subsumed under dementia praecox and articulated nine different “clinical forms“ (Table I). Although the core features of the disorder could not always be identified reliably in the cross-section of the clinical presentation, Kraepelin emphasised that “we meet Florfenicol everywhere the same fundamental disorders in the different forms of dementia praecox [...] in very varied conjunctions, even though the clinical picture may appear at first sight ever so divergent. 8 The “fundamental disorders“ which supported the concept of the disease entity were cognitive deficit (a “general decay of mental efficiency”) and executive dysfunction (“loss of mastery over volitional action”), most clearly manifested in the residual, “terminal states“ of the illness.

r-project org, Amin et al 2007) A meta-analysis was performed, Amin et al. 2007). A meta-analysis was performed using METAL ( Study specific P-values and effect directions were converted into a Z-statistics and

weighted with sample size of each study. Results Association analysis in Sorbs An association analysis for variant rs2237781 located in intron 4 of GRM8 was performed in the discovery population. Using linear regression analysis and an additive inheritance model the major G allele was significantly associated with higher restraint in eating chemical structure behavior (adjusted P = 1.9 × 10−4) in the Sorbs (Table ​(Table2).2). No significant association could be detected for the eating behavior factors disinhibition Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and susceptibility to hunger feelings. Given a low frequency of the A allele (minor allele frequency [MAF 0.07]) we also included a recessive model of inheritance which showed significantly higher restraint values in homozygous G allele carriers (Table ​(Table22). Table 2 Association analysis for rs2237781 with eating behavior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical factors under linear regression analyses When analyzing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data regarding alcohol intake, smoking behavior, and coffee consumption, we detected a higher but nonsignificant intake for each category in homozygous G allele carriers (Table ​(Table22). Association analysis in German cohort

In our second cohort comprising a limited sample set of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 293 individuals we observed no significant association (Table ​(Table2).2). However, we detected the same effect direction between the major G allele as the allele show tendency for higher restraint values (Table ​(Table2).2). No significant association was detected for the eating behavior factors disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger feelings. Association analysis in Old Order Amish Despite consistent effect directions with the discovery and the German cohort, no significant association was found between rs10487466 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and restraint eating behavior in the Amish using linear regression models (adjusted P = 0.908, β = +0.096; Table ​Table3).3). Of note, there

was a significant association of rs10487466 with hunger (P = 3.9 × 10−3, adjusted for age, sex, and family structure, data not shown). Nature Medicine Table 3 Meta-analysis for association of rs2237781 with restraint including Sorbs, German cohort, and Old Order Amish Meta-analysis including all three study populations A sample size weighted meta-analysis including the results from all three study populations (Sorbs, German cohort, and Old Order Amish) resulted in a significant association for restraint (combined P = 3.1 × 10−3, Z-score 2.948, Table ​Table33). Discussion The metabotropic receptor GRM8 has been associated with smoking behavior (Vink et al. 2009) and liability to alcoholism (Chen et al. 2009) implying there may be a role in addiction vulnerability.

” To qualify for Jaspers’ criteria for psychosis,26 the pathologi

” To qualify for Jaspers’ criteria for psychosis,26 the pathological process displayed in a FHPI chemical structure patient’s case history has to be sufficiently strong to override normal development,

displayed in the life history; and the patient’s behavior has to be sufficiently different that it cannot be understood as an extension of the normal or as an exaggerated response to ordinary experience. Jaspers’26 conceptual framework was adopted by Kurt Schneider28 in his rudimentary classification in which psychoses, ie, the effects of illness, were separated from the abnormal variations of psychic life, ie, anomalies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of development, which might become manifest in abnormal intellectual endowment, abnormal personality, or abnormal psychic reactions. Schneider28 defined psychoses as diseases with psychic symptomatology and somatic etiology, and divided psychoses into somatically determined Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical psychoses, cyclothymia (the term he used for Kraepelin’s21 manic depressive insanity), and schizophrenia,29 a term he retained in spite of his belief that “there is nothing to which one could point as a common element in all the clinical pictures” subsumed under this diagnostic category. Sociomedical concept of psychosis Jaspers’26 concept of psychosis as a disease was transformed into a sociomedical concept by Fish30 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with consideration that the characteristic

features of psychosis include psychopathological manifestations, such as lack of insight, distortion of the whole personality by the illness, construction of a false environment out of subjective experiences, and gross disorder of basic drives, including self-preservation, coupled with an inability to make a reasonable social adjustment. The interaction between psychopathology Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and social adjustment was further

elaborated in the Diagnostic Criteria, for Research (DCR) Budapest-Nashville,31 in which psychosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was defined as a nonspecific syndrome characterized by lack of insight and psychopathological symptoms of sufficient severity to disrupt everyday functioning with collapse of the customary social life, which may call for psychiatric hospitalization. In the DCR, psychosis is the nadir in the process of psychiatric illness, the point at which the patient’s case history (ie, pathological process) displayed in psychopathological symptoms, such as hallucinations or autism, becomes dominant over the patient’s 4��8C life history (ie, normal development). During psychosis, there is a forced withdrawal from everyday life, accompanied by a tendency to suspend social adjustment, and during the period of hospitalization, social adjustment may collapse to the extent that it may not be possible to assess social adjustment at all. Without encountering such a nadir at least once in the course of the illness, the prerequisite for a DCR diagnosis of psychosis is not fulfilled.

However, a relationship between dose and occurrence of seizures

However, a relationship between dose and occurrence of GDC0994 seizures was not found. We consider that clozapine level is likely to be the more reliable indicator of the potential for seizure to occur. There is a distinct lack of studies investigating the relationship between clozapine plasma levels and occurrence of seizures. Additional large-scale studies are required to establish with certainty the relationship between clozapine and seizures. For seizure prophylaxis, there appears to be a strong argument for prescribing an

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical AED after the occurrence of myoclonus, stuttering or speech difficulties, any type of seizure, epilepti-form changes on the EEG, and in those with added risk factors such as pre-existing seizure disorder or those with relevant neurological abnormalities, and also once the clozapine plasma level reaches or exceeds 500 μg/l. The AEDs of choice appear to be valproate for a schizoaffective illness, topiramate or lamotrigine

for patients with clozapine-induced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical weight gain, and lamotrigine in clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. When should an antiepileptic be prescribed? In pre-existing seizure disorder or in patients with relevant neurological abnormalities. With concurrent use of epileptogenic medication. When clozapine plasma level exceeds 500 μg/l. If stuttering Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or other speech difficulties occur. If myoclonic jerks occur. If EEG shows epileptiform changes. Following any type of

seizure. In clozapine treatment-refractory schizophrenia, augment with lamotrigine. Antiepileptic choice Schizoaffective disorder or mood-related psychosis: valproate. Clozapine-induced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical weight gain: lamotrigine or topiramate Lack of response with clozapine: lamotrigine. Acknowledgement The authors wish to thank Victoria Cornelius for her statistical advice. Footnotes This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. None declared.
A pro forma for data extraction at baseline was designed to enhance reliability and included the following variables. Megestrol Acetate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Sample characteristics. Sociodemographic variables included gender, date of birth, marital status, employment status, and ethnicity which was categorized using standard format from census data [Office for National Statistics, 2001]. Primary psychiatric diagnosis at CTO initiation was recorded as documented by clinicians (ICD-10) [World Health Organization, 1992]. Mental Health Act status. Date of CTO initiation, reasons for CTO (protection of patient’s own safety, health or others), preceding/parent section (sections 3, 37 or 25a) and CTO specified conditions were noted. Medication. Psychotropic medication prescribed at the time of CTO initiation (drug name and dose), history of previous clozapine (ever) use, and history of previous antipsychotic LAI (ever) use were recorded.

The well differentiated intestinal type is sporadic and

The well differentiated intestinal type is sporadic and highly associated with environmental exposures, especially H. pylori infection (13). There are also biologic differences between these subtypes of gastric cancer that may guide treatment approaches. H2N is over expressed more often in the intestinal vs the diffuse type, 30% vs 6% in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical one study (14). The Beta-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway is also recognized to play a large role in the molecular carcinogenesis of the intestinal type cancer (15). Despite the genetic heterogeneity of gastric cancer, several

biological determinants of risk and prognosis have been identified. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokines released with “oxidative stress” such as IL-Iβ, IL-10, and TNF-A have been associated with increased gastric cancer risk (16)-(18). Over expression of the oncogenes, tie-1, CMET and AKT have been found to confer a poor prognosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in both subtypes (19)-(21). Tumor expression of the isoenzyme COX-2 is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer survival (22). This benefit may be mediated by a reduction in lymphangiogenesis, another correlate of prognosis

(22),(23). Recently Her-2/Neu over expression, an important predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer has been independently associated with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer (24),(25). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The prognostic significance of age, gender, and ethnicity in metastatic gastric cancer is unclear. The prevailing belief that young patients with gastric cancer have a more aggressive disease has been recently called into question (26),(27). Several prospective and population studies since 1996 have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical consistently shown that age is not a prognostic factor for survival, despite the higher prevalence of “diffuse type” cancer which typically has a worse outcome (28),(29). However, according to a recent population-based study of gastric cancer, a significant impact of age on survival was found in patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stage IV disease (30). As compared to women, men are twice as likely to develop and die from gastric cancer, in the US (1). Although this may

represent varying environmental exposures between genders, studies demonstrate that menstrual factors such as age of menopause and years of fertility are associated with gastric cancer incidence (31). Phosphoprotein phosphatase Interestingly, woman may be more likely to have a “diffuse type histology” (32). There are also significant ethnic and racial differences in gastric cancer incidence and survival. Asian patients consistently have increased survival rates compared to their western counterparts (33). Ethnic Asians living in the US share this benefit which suggests that these differences are not likely treatment related (34). Other racial differences in the US are MG-132 clinical trial notable as the incidence and mortality is 50% higher in African Americans than Caucasians (35).

The symptoms of depression during the postpartum are not distinct

The symptoms of depression during the postpartum are not distinct from depressions occurring at other periods of life, and

the MEK inhibitor drugs temporal association of symptoms with the postpartum period is the critical diagnostic feature, similar to perimenopausal depression. PPDs are not associated with an abnormality of reproductive function143; nonetheless, women with a history of PPD display an abnormal mood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical response to changes in reproductive hormones simulating endocrine events occurring at delivery.144 Despite the absence of endocrine abnormalities in this condition, there has been interest in whether supplementing reproductive endocrine function during the immediate postpartum could prevent or diminish depression. Open studies of progesterone for the treatment of PPD were conducted by Dalton,145 who reported a reduced recurrence rate of postnatal depression in women using prophylactic progesterone compared with untreated women.146 Nonetheless, as with studies of progesterone in PMS, the absence of controlled trials examining the efficacy of progesterone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in PPD limited the utility of Dalton’s observations. In fact, one double-blind, placebocontrolled study of 180 postpartum women, treated

with either norethisterone enanthate or placebo, showed an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms following treatment with norethisterone.147 Thus, as with PMS, current evidence does not support a role for progesterone in the treatment of PPD. Similar to earlier reports of progesterone’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical efficacy, an open trial in women at risk for puerperal psychosis demonstrated that high-dose

estrogen treatment resulted in a lower than expected 1-year relapse rate (9% compared with an expected 35%-60% without prophylaxis).148 Varying doses of estrogen (Premarin® ranging in dose from 0.625 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to 10 mg per day or IV estradiol 25 mg every 8 hours) were administered immediately postpartum and then tapered over 4 weeks. It was suggested that estrogen administration could attenuate the rapid puerperal drop in estradiol levels, thereby reducing the negative impact of the postpartum “estrogen withdrawal state” on mood. In a follow-up study, Grégoire et al149 tested the suggestion that estradiol withdrawal caused PPD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of estradiol in 61 women who developed major Dichloromethane dehalogenase depression within 3 months of delivery. Eighty percent of the patients receiving estrogen patch experienced a significant reduction in depression severity after 3 months of treatment, compared with 31 % of the placebo-treated group. Reductions in mood symptoms on estrogen therapy were observed in women regardless of concurrent antidepressant use, and estrogen’s antidepressant effects were rapid and observed after 2 to 3 weeks of treatment. A similar rapid response to estradiol was also recently reported in an open-label trial of sublingual estradiol,150 similar to the timing of the response to estradiol in perimenopausal depression.

8,38 Life-sustaining treatments range from antibiotics and artifi

8,38 Life-sustaining treatments range from antibiotics and artificial nutrition and hydration to mechanical ventilation and dialysis. #KOS 953 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Each intervention should be considered separately according to the patient’s condition and prognosis, applying relevant evidence-based medicine. This means that the duty to sustain the lives of PLCC patients does not necessarily entail an obligation to use every available modality in every

case. If we accept as a guiding principle that the fact that the patient is mentally deficient does not make his/her life less worthy, these considerations should be taken into Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical account just as they are considered for cognitively competent patients. Thus, any suffering entailed in the treatment and its outcomes should be given due weight. Certainly, if the patient is enduring

pain and suffering that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cannot be alleviated, it may be permitted and in certain circumstances even obligatory to refrain from prolonging life. However, in the case of PLCC patients, there is no indication that being in this state as such involves suffering; however notwithstanding, when a PLCC patient seems to be in pain or to be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suffering otherwise, this should be adequately treated.23 Looking further into what might positively serve the well-being of the patient, it would be advisable to use the formula suggested by Jox,1 according to which, life-sustaining treatment should be continued Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical if the well-being associated with this option

is superior to the well-being associated with allowing the patient to die. Due to the epistemic gap regarding the well-being of PLCC patients, just as the value Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of (their) life after death, to which Jox relates in his formula, and since the only known parameter in the formula is that life in itself has a positive ethical value, it turns out that life-sustaining should be presumed to serve better the well-being of these patients. Moreover, compassionate care for such unresponsive patients is an expression of unconditional Entinostat love, which is a great privilege for the caregivers, which might also give the patients an opportunity to experience (if and as much as they can) the feeling of this rare kind of love. The Dignity of the PLCC Patient The dignity of the PLCC patient is a tougher issue, due to both the calls for “death with dignity” and the high value placed by Western society on cognition as an integral aspect of an individual’s dignity (in accordance with the Kantian reading, which sees dignity as based on rationality).35,36 However, dignity has other interpretations, relating to all human lives being created in the image of God, and having a human genome.