Benign emergencies, as defined for this study, included acute con

Benign emergencies, as defined for this study, included acute conditions expected to resolve spontaneously or with appropriate medical treatment #Lenvatinib supplier randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# such as uncomplicated ectopic pregnancy, uncomplicated

pelvic inflammatory disease, uncomplicated cyst, intra-cystic hemorrhage, myoma, endometriotic lesions, and pelvic adhesions. Data analysis The preoperative physical and TVUS examinations, recorded as normal or abnormal, were compared to the laparoscopy findings as indicating a surgical emergency or a benign emergency. We used multiple logistic regression to compute the crude and adjusted diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) of having a laparoscopically confirmed surgical emergency depending on the preoperative clinical and TVUS results. The parameter values of the model were estimated using the maximum likelihood ratio method. The adjusted diagnostic odds ratios (aDORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from the model coefficients and their standard deviations. P values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. To compare the performances of physical examination alone, TVUS alone, and both in combination for diagnosing a surgical emergency, we computed sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and the positive and negative

likelihood ratios learn more (LR+ and LR-). In the strategy including both examinations in combination, the results were considered to suggest a surgical emergency if the physical examination OR the TVUS OR both showed abnormalities; this strategy reflected routine use of TVUS in first Demeclocycline line, regardless of clinical findings as we perform at our ED. To be clinically effective and safe, a first-line diagnostic strategy had to have a low false-negative rate (i.e., sensitivity of 95% or more), with sufficient sensitivity to produce an LR- lower than 0.25.

The three different strategies were compared based on the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for Se and Sp according to Taylor’s formula [20]. If the point estimate of one value was not included within the 95% CI of the other, then they differed significantly with P smaller than 0.05. The analyses were first performed on the overall population of patients then separately in the pregnant and nonpregnant patients. The required sample size was estimated as follows. The expected prevalence of surgical emergencies among patients who underwent laparoscopy was 50%. Using computation of the 95% CI with an unknown ratio estimator of the standard deviation, including 200 patients with laparoscopy would produce a lower limit of the 95% CI of 0.95 if the true false-negative rate is less than or equal to 2%.

Macrosporae but with low support (Supermatrix, 24 % MLBS) In an

Macrosporae but with low support (Supermatrix, 24 % MLBS). In an ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished data), however, H. noninquinans (as H. konradii var. HM781-36B cell line antillana) is basal to subsect. Conica with low support as part of a paraphyletic grade corresponding to subsect. Macrosporae. Hygrocybe subpapillata is unplaced in our ITS analysis, but is basal to spp. in sect. Pseudofirmae and sect. Macrosporae in an ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished data). Species included Type species: H. acutoconica. All of the varieties of H. acutoconica

are included. Hygrocybe persistens (Britzelm.) Singer is currently considered a synonym of H. acutoconica (Boertmann 2010; Cantrell and Lodge 2000), as is H. subglobispora P.D. Orton (Boertmann 2010). Hygrocybe spadicea P. Karst. is tentatively included based on high

support in our ITS analysis, though support for inclusion is weak or ambiguous in our other analyses and Dentinger et al.’ (unpublished) ITS analysis, and the fibrillose pileus surface which fits better in subsect. Hygrocybe. Hygrocybe noninquinans AICAR is included based on its similarities to H. acutoconica var. konradii, and its placement basal to other species of sect. Macrosporeae in our Supermatrix analysis. Hygrocybe zuluensis Boertmann is included based on morphology. Comments This subsection is often referred to as the non-staining conica group. Boertmann (2010) regards H. konradii as a buy BAY 80-6946 wide-spored variety of H. acutoconica. The ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished), however, suggests that while there are wide-spored collections embedded in the H. acutoconica clade, there is also a well-supported sister clade to H. acutoconica comprised of H. konradii s.s. collections (100 % support for the clade, 77 % MLBS support as sister to H. acutoconica var. acutoconica). Hygrocybe noninquinans was described as H. konradii var. antillana, but it is raised here to species rank based on phylogenetic analyses

that place it apart from H. konradii. The name H. antillana was occupied, so a new name is provided. Hygrocybe noninquinans Lodge & S.A. Cantrell, nom. nov., stat. nov. MycoBank Megestrol Acetate MB804045. Replaced synonym: Hygrocybe konradii var. antillana Lodge & Cantrell, Mycol. Res. 104(7): 877–878 (2000). Type: PUERTO RICO, Mun. Río Grande, El Yunque National Forest (Caribbean National Forest), Caimitillo Trail, 16 Jun 1997, CFMR-PR 4555, CFMR. Hygrocybe [subg. Hygrocybe ] sect. Velosae Lodge, Ovrebo & Padamsee, sect. nov. MycoBank MB804047. Type species: Hygrophorus hypohaemactus Corner, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 20(2): 180, Figs. 5, 6, 8a (1936) ≡ Hygrocybe hypohaemacta (Corner) Pegler & Fiard, Kew Bull. 32(2): 299 (1978).

This pathway responds to signals from a variety of growth factors

This pathway responds to signals from a variety of growth factors (EGF, NGF, PDGF, etc.), mitogens and environmental stimulations, eventually leading to activation and phosphorylation of extracellular selleck compound signal-regulated kinase (ERK) through the signal amplification cascade. Phosphorylated ERK translocates to nucleus, where it acts on the AP-1, NF-κB and other nuclear transcription factors, thereby regulating

gene expression and promoting tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Over-activation of ERK has been found in many human malignant tumors including oral cancer, melanoma and breast cancer[2, 3]. Urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin as a broad-spectrum protease inhibitor can inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, human leukocyte elastase and hyaluronidase. It has anti-tumor metastasis and protective effects on patients accepted radiotherapy and chemotherapy and been widely used to treat acute pancreatitis and shock and to improve surgical outcome in clinic. Ulinastatin can bind to tumor cells through its N-terminal Selleck QNZ domain I

and exert its inhibitory effect on proteolytic activity of plasmin by binding to tumor cells through its C-terminal domain II, the major anti-fibrinolytic group. The impact of ulinastatin on uPA is more complicated. In addition to its inhibitory effects on gene transcription, it also inhibits uPA protein expression by affecting kinase C and MEK/ERK/c-Jun signaling pathways[4, 5]. To find a more effective treatment for breast cancer, this study check details explored PRKACG the additive effects of docetaxel and ulinastatin on the proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and tumor growth in nude mice. Materials and methods 1. Materials Ulinastatin was purchased from Guangdong Techpool Bio-Pharma Co., Ltd. Docetaxel was bought from Sanofi-Aventis (French). SYBR Green/ROX qPCR Master Mix (2X) were purchased from Fermentas Inc. (Canada). Anti-uPA antibody was from Bioworld (USA). Anti-uPAR and anti-pERK antibodies were from Santa Cruz (USA). 24 well Transwell plates were from Corning (USA). Matrigel was from BD Company (USA). 2. Cell culture Human

breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 (ER-) and MCF-7 (ER+) were kindly gifted by Shanghai Institute of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and maintained in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 mg/L streptomycin at 37°C in an incubator supplemented with 5% CO2 under saturated humidity. 3. Animals 100 female BALB/c (nunu) mice at age 4-6 weeks and with body weight of 17-21 g from Animal Research Center of Chongqing Medical University (Production License No.: SCXK (Beijing) 2005-0013, the use permit number: SYX (Chongqing) 2007-0001) were kept in SPF-class environment at 22-25°C and 50-65% humidity. Drinking water, feed and experimental materials were sterilized and all experiments were complied with sterile principle. 4.

Figure 4 Optical absorption spectra of Sb 2 S 3 -TiO 2 nanostruct

Figure 4 Optical absorption spectra of Sb 2 S 3 -TiO 2 nanostructure samples. Before (green spectrum) and after being annealed at 100°C (red spectrum), 200°C (blue-green spectrum), 300°C (black spectrum), and 400°C (brown spectrum). Photovoltaic performance of the solar cell based on Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure The photocurrent-voltage (I-V) performances of the solar

cells assembled using Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructures annealed under different temperatures are shown in Figure 5. The I-V curves of the samples were measured under one sun illumination (AM1.5, 100 mW/cm2). Compared with the solar cell based on as-grown Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure, the solar cell performances correspondingly improved as the annealing temperatures increased from 100°C to 300°C. The open-circuit voltage (V oc) improved from 0.3 up to 0.39 V, and the short-circuit current EPZ5676 density (J sc) improved from 6.2 up to 12.1 mA/cm2. A power conversion efficiency of 1.47% for the sample with annealing treatment was obtained, indicating an increase of 219% (as compared to the 0.46% for the as-grown sample) as a consequence of the annealing treatment. The photovoltaic performance of annealed Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructured solar cell under 400°C deteriorated, which coincides with the absorption spectrum. Detailed parameters of the

solar cells extracted from the I-V characteristics are listed in Table 1. Figure 5 I – V curves for the solar cells assembled using Sb 2 S check details 3 -TiO 2 nanostructures annealed under varied temperature. Table 1 Parameters of Sb 2 S 3 -TiO 2 nanostructured solar cells annealed at different temperatures   V oc(V) J sc(mA/cm2) FF (%) η (%) As-synthesized Sb2S3-TiO2

0.30 6.10 0.25 0.46 Sb2S3-TiO2 under 100°C 0.33 8.65 0.28 0.79 Sb2S3-TiO2 under 200°C 0.34 10.32 0.31 1.10 Sb2S3-TiO2 under 300°C 0.39 12.15 0.31 1.47 Sb2S3-TiO2 under 400°C 0.29 3.82 0.32 0.36 V oc, open-circuit voltage; J sc, integral photocurrent density; FF, fill factor; η, power conversion efficiency. This significant improvement of the photovoltaic performance selleck screening library obtained for annealed Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructured solar cells is explained by the following reasons: (1) An enhanced absorption of sunlight caused by the red shift of the bandgap will result in an enhanced current density. (2) Increase of Sb2S3 grain size by annealing will reduce the particle-to-particle Selleckchem CB-839 hopping of the photo-induced carrier. This hopping may occur in an as-grown nanostructure with Sb2S3 nanoparticles. (3) Improvement of crystal quality of the Sb2S3 nanoparticles by annealing treatment will decrease the internal defects, which can reduce the recombination of photoexcited carriers and result in higher power conversion efficiency. (4) Good contact between the Sb2S3 nanoparticles and the TiO2 nanorod is formed as a result of high-temperature annealing.

Immunoblotting Briefly, 70–80% confluent cells were homogenized w

Immunoblotting Briefly, 70–80% confluent cells were homogenized with 1 ml of lysis buffer (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.2 mM PMSF) and incubated on ice. To the homogenates was added 125 μl of 10% NP-40 solution, and the mixture was then centrifuged for 30 sec at 12,000 × g. Supernatant protein concentration was determined by the Bradford GSK461364 manufacturer protein assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) using bovine serum albumin (Sigma) as a standard. Immunoblot analysis was performed as described elsewhere [20]. Immunofluorescence analysis and confocal microscopy Cells grown on coverslips were fixed in 4% PFA, permeabilized

in 0.3% Triton X-100, and blocked for 40 min in 1% BSA/10% fetal bovine serum. The cell samples were incubated with CHIR98014 clinical trial primary antibodies at 4°C overnight, washed with PBS containing 0.1% BSA, and then reacted with FITC- or Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA,

USA) at room temperature for 40 min. After washing, the samples were rinsed with PBS containing 0.1% selleck screening library BSA, stained with 5 mg/ml 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; Sigma), and mounted. Confocal analyses were performed using an Olympus (Center Valley, PA) FC-300 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope equipped with FITC- and Cy3- channel filter systems. All images were converted to TIFF format and arranged using Photoshop 7.0 (Adobe, Seattle, WA). In vitro migration assay The in vitro migration assay was performed as described previously [21]. 5 × 104 cells were placed in the upper compartment (8 μm pore size) of the cell culture insert with Fenbendazole or without 5 μM PIA. Medium, supplemented with 100 ng/ml IGF-I (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), was added to the lower compartment. After 12 h of incubation, the cells on the upper surface of the filter were wiped out with a cotton swab, and the filter was removed from the chamber and stained with Diff-Quick stain set (Fisher, Pittsburgh, PA). The migration of the cells was determined by counting the number of cells that migrated through the pores to the lower side of the

filter under a microscope at 100 × magnification. We performed the assay three times, and three randomly selected fields were counted for each assay. We used Student’s t test to determine the significance at a level of P < 0.05. Results Screening of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines We screened several OSCC cell lines in order to select suitable cell line models with the characteristics of the EMT (low or negative expression of E-cadherin) and a constitutively activated state of Akt. Of the 7 OSCC cell lines, KB, KOSCC-25B, Ca9-22, and SCC-15 showed constitutively activated phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt). Of these four lines, only KB and KOSCC-25B showed low or negative expression of E-cadherin (Fig. 1A). Because the E-cadherin downregulation could be caused by the methylation of its promoter, we investigated the methylation status of E-cadherin gene promoter in the KB and KOSCC-25B cells with MS-PCR.

Joseph B, Goebel W: Life of Listeria monocytogenes in the host ce

Joseph B, Goebel W: Life of Listeria monocytogenes in the host cells’ cytosol. Microbes Infect 2007,9(10):1188–1195.PubMedCrossRef 27. Breuil MF, Duquesne F, Laugier C, Petry S: Phenotypic and 16S ribosomal RNA gene diversity of Taylorella asinigenitalis strains isolated between 1995 and 2008. Vet Microbiol 2011,148(2–4):260–266.PubMedCrossRef 28. Büchner P: Endosymbiose der Tiere mit Pflanzlichen Mikroorganismen. Basel, Switzerland: Gebundene Ausgabe; 1953.CrossRef 29. Timoney PJ, Harrington A, McArdle J, O’Reilly P: Survival properties of the NVP-LDE225 causal agent of contagious equine metritis 1977. Vet Rec 1978,102(7):152. 30. Horn M: Chlamydiae

as symbionts in eukaryotes. Annu Rev Microbiol 2008,62(1):113–131.PubMedCrossRef 31. Clarke M, Lohan AJ, Liu B, Lagkouvardos I, Roy S, Zafar N, Bertelli C, Schilde C, Kianianmomeni A, Bürglin TR, Frech C, Turcotte B, Kopec KO, Synnott JM, Choo C, Paponov I, Finkler A, Heng Tan CS, Hutchins AP, Weinmeier T, Rattei T, Chu JS, Gimenez G, Irimia M, Rigden DJ, Fitzpatrick DA, Lorenzo-Morales J, Bateman A, Chiu CH, Tang P: Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling. Genome

Poziotinib datasheet Biol 2013,14(2):R11.PubMedCrossRef 32. Inglis TJ, Rigby P, Robertson TA, Dutton NS, Henderson M, Chang BJ: Interaction between Burkholderia pseudomallei and Acanthamoeba species results in coiling phagocytosis, endamebic bacterial survival, and escape. Infect Immun 2000,68(3):1681–1686.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Marolda CL, Hauröder B, John MA, Michel R, Valvano MA: Intracellular survival and saprophytic growth of isolates from the Burkholderia cepacia

complex in 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl free-living amoebae. Microbiology 1999,145(Pt 7):1509–1517.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JA Performed and designed the experiments and analyzed the data. JA, AV and LH conceived the study. SP and CL participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. LH wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of hundreds of Alvocidib orthophosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. The main enzymes associated with polyP metabolism in bacteria are polyphosphate kinase (PPK, encoded by ppk) and exopolyphosphatase (PPX, encoded by ppx) [1, 2]. In most organisms, including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, metal tolerance was related to polyP levels [3]. Rachlin et al. [4] have proposed that polyP, as a metal chelator, reduces intracellular heavy metals concentration in the Cyanophycean alga Plectonema boryanum. Similarly, resistance to cadmium in Anacystis nidulans R2 strain [5] and in Klebsiella aerogenes[6] was related to high polyP levels.

The second group received the complemented strain, HI2210, along

The second group received the complemented strain, HI2210, along with HI2206 (Figure  4C). The last group of animals was infected with R2866 and HI2210 (Figure  4D). The hfq mutant exhibited significantly lower bacteremic titers throughout the course of the experiment when compared to either the wild type or the complemented mutant strains. As shown by the competitive index, the ∆hfq strain was approximately a 100-fold lower than the wild type strain by day one and all animals had completely PS-341 price cleared the mutant strain by day 3 post infection. Similar differences were observed in the animals infected with the ∆hfq complement strain and the ∆hfq strain, indicating the complement

strain exhibits a reversal of 3-MA clinical trial the mutant phenotype, however, there was not a complete reversal of the mutant phenotype (Figure  4D). The wild type strain did significantly out compete the complemented strain on days 2 and 3 post-infection. Complementation only partially restores the in vitro growth phenotype, and since the in vivo environment is likely to be more rigorously restricted for essential nutrients, the difference between wild

type and complemented strain may be exacerbated in vivo. The role of Hfq during infections of H. influenzae is not clear. In other organisms several sRNAs that interact with Hfq have been shown to be important in the regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis [58]. It is currently unknown if H. influenzae has sRNAs that are important in pathogenesis. However, our animal studies suggest that in the absence of Hfq, certain genes important in establishing infection are likely affected.

Presumably, these genes are regulated by sRNAs either directly or indirectly and require Hfq to function properly. However, during the virulence studies there was no observed difference in either animal model, indicating that the ∆hfq mutant was able to grow within the host Amino acid environment. The defect is apparently limited to the occupation of specific niches within the host that are unavailable in a mixed infection due to the presence of the wild type strain. The loss of post-transcriptional regulation in the ∆hfq mutant leads to the inability of the bacteria to adapt to the host environment and compete successfully for the specific niches that are required for pathogenesis. The observations made in this study indicate there is a decrease in fitness in the animal models, and this phenotype is conserved across different strains. This effect may be partially explained by the selleck chemical impact of hfq mutation on acquisition of essential nutrients such as heme. While we did not address biofilm formation in the chinchilla middle ear, the possibility remains that mutation of hfq may influence adherence/biofilm formation in the microenvironment. A better understanding of the nutrients available in the host is necessary for a comprehensive explanation of the decrease in fitness identified in the mutant strain.

However, despite the smaller number of genera detected in the two

However, despite the smaller number of genera detected in the two human groups, a larger fraction of the variance in their

saliva microbiome is due to differences among individuals (28.9-36.3%) than is the SNX-5422 datasheet case for the two Pan species (11.3-19.1%), as shown in Table 1. Overall, then, the human saliva microbiome is characterized by fewer genera, but bigger differences in composition among individuals, than is the Pan saliva microbiome. A heat plot (Additional file 2: Figure S2) of the frequency of each genus in each individual indicates that the dominant genera in the saliva microbiomes of the two Pan species are different from those in humans. While the ten most frequent genera (accounting for 78% of all sequences) are indicated in the pie charts in Figure 1, a detailed distribution of all bacterial genera with abundances over 0.5% in at least one group is shown in Figure 2. These 28 genera accounted for 98.7% of all sequences

in humans and 96.2% in the apes. LEE011 research buy The frequencies of all displayed genera were significantly different between Pan and Homo (chi-square tests, p < 0.001). The most striking differences were seen in the Gamma-Proteobacteria in which various genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae (particularly the genus Enterobacter) consistently dominated in humans. Conversely, a number of genera within Pasteurellaceae Abiraterone purchase consistently dominated in the apes, along with Neisseria (from the Beta-Proteobacteria). With one exception (Granulicatella) genera within the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria had higher abundances in humans than in apes. In contrast, genera within Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes exhibited higher abundances in apes compared to humans (with the exception of Prevotella). Figure 2 Relative abundance of predominant genera (> 0.5%) indicated by with gray scale values with significant differences in: A, African humans

(H) compared to sanctuary apes (WA); B, sanctuary apes (WA) compared to zoo apes (ZA). Non-significant differences are indicated by asterisks. The phylogenetic tree was calculated with representative full-length sequences as implemented in the ARB program package [46] using the GDC-0449 in vitro Jukes-Cantor correction. The scale bar represents evolutionary distance (10 substitutions per 100 nucleotides). Bacterial phyla are indicated by different colors; the vertical bars on the right of each plot indicate the relative abundance of each phylum, as marked by the colors. Partial correlation analysis was performed in order to compare possible interactions among bacterial genera in humans with those in apes (Additional file 2: Figure S3).

This inflammatory

This inflammatory FK506 supplier reaction clearly subsided if the animals were immunized before infection (figure 3e). However, undernourished mice presented a distinct lung involvement. They already presented a pulmonary disseminated inflammatory process before infection with S. aureus. This reaction was characterized by septal thickening and a clear mononuclear cell infiltration (figure 3b). Interestingly, the intensity and the quality of this inflammatory

reaction were not altered by infection preceded or not by immunization with killed S. aureus, as documented at figure 3d and 3f, respectively. Figure 3 Effect of dietary restriction and immunization on lung histology. BALB/c mice were submitted to dietary restriction (20%), immunized with the formolized bacteria and infected with S. aureus (5 × 108 CFU/0.5 ml). Lung sections were obtained 24 hours later, stained with H&E and analysed with a Leica microscope. Lung samples from normal (a), undernourished (b), well nourished and infected (c), undernourished and infected (d), well nourished immunized and infected (e), undernourished immunized and infected (f). Bacterial density

evaluated by Gram stain Staining of lung sections Ro 61-8048 research buy by Gram showed absence of the typical Gram positive cocci in non infected mice (figure 4a and 4b), independently of their nutritional status. A great amount of cocci was, as expected, present in infected well nourished mice Bay 11-7085 (figure 4c). Immunization of these animals before infection visibly reduced the amount of these bacteria in lung parenchyma (figure 4e). Lung evaluation in undernourished mice indicated two striking differences. Comparing to well

nourished group, the undernourished one presented a clear reduction in the amount of cocci in the lungs (figure 4d). In addition, previous immunization of these animals did not reduce lung colonization by the bacteria (figure 4f). Figure 4 Effect of dietary restriction and immunization on lung bacterial load. BALB/c mice were submitted to dietary restriction (20%), immunized with the formolized bacteria and infected with S. aureus (5 × 108 CFU/0.5 ml). Lung sections were obtained 24 hours later, stained with Gram and analysed with a Nikon microscope. Lung samples from normal (a), undernourished (b), well nourished and infected (c), undernourished and infected (d), well nourished immunized and infected (e), undernourished immunized and infected (f). Arrows indicate bacteria location. check details Discussion Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is the most common type of undernutrition. It leads to secondary immunodeficiency and consequently increased susceptibility to infectious agents, including to S. aureus [13–15]. In this context, this work was done to establish a murine experimental model of PEM and to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on both, susceptibility and ability to mount a protective immunity against a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).

Phys Rev B 2011, 83:245213 CrossRef 7 Radisavljevic B, Radenovic

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characterization of back-gated bi-layer MoS 2 field-effect transistors and the effect of ambient on their performances. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100:123104.CrossRef 11. Lee K, Kim HY, Lotya M, Coleman JN, Kim GT, Duesberg GS: Electrical characteristics of molybdenum disulfide flakes produced by liquid exfoliation. Akt inhibitor Adv

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SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA: Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 2004, 306:666.CrossRef 19. Novoselov KS, Jiang D, Schedin F, Booth TJ, Khotkevich VV, Morozov SV, Geim AK: Two-dimensional atomic crystals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005, 102:10451.CrossRef 20. Joensen P, Frindt RF, Morrison SR: Single-layer MoS 2 . Mater Res Bull 1986, 21:457.CrossRef 21. Schumacher A, Scandella L, Kruse N, Prins Sitaxentan R: Single-layer MoS 2 on mica: studies by means of scanning force microscopy. Surf Sci Lett 1993, 289:L595. 22. Coleman JN, Lotya M, O’Neill A, Bergin SD, King PJ, Khan U, Young K, Gaucher A, De S, Smith RJ, Shvets IV, Arora SK, Stanton G, Kim HY, Lee K, Kim GT, Duesberg GS, Hallam T, Boland JJ, Wang JJ, Donegan JF, Grunlan JC, Moriarty G, Shmeliov A, Nicholls RJ, Perkins JM, Grieveson EM, Theuwissen K, McComb DW, Nellist PD, et al.: Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials. Science 2011, 331:568.CrossRef 23.