WEO was accompanied by pre-drinking (anticipatory) activity prior to R-Water (Fig. 3B). In the absence of the SCN circadian pacemaker, the circadian Per2 rhythms in the CPU and PC were
significantly phase-shifted by R-Water (Fig. 7E). In addition, the circadian rhythms in the CPU and SN were differentially shifted by R-MAP and R-Water (Fig. 7C). These findings suggest that MAO and WEO consist of different extra-SCN circadian oscillators in the brain. The finding may explain the different periods of behavioral rhythms induced by R-MAP and R-Water. R-Water has been reported to induce the anticipatory activity immediately prior to the time of restricted water intake (Johnson Palbociclib supplier & Levine, 1973; Dhume & Gogate, 1982). The effect of R-Water was interpreted as a secondary effect of the food restriction which was accompanied by R-Water (Mistlberger & Rechtschaffen, 1985; Honma et al., 1986a). However, the present results do not support this interpretation because food intake was not decreased by R-Water in the SCN-lesioned rats (Fig. 5B), and WEO phase-shifted the extra-SCN circadian oscillators differently from the food-entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO; Natsubori et al., 2013a). WEO and FEO may be different oscillators. In conclusion, MAO is NVP-AUY922 induced and phase-set by restricted
MAP supply at a fixed time of day in rats. The circadian rhythms in Per2 expression in discrete brain areas as well as in behavior receive dual regulation by the SCN circadian pacemaker and MAO. Restricted water supply at a fixed time of day induced a circadian oscillation which was not identical either with MAO or with FEO. We are grateful to Dr S. Hashimoto (Astellas Pharma, Inc.) and Professor Y. Shigeyoshi (Kinki University) for the supply of Per2-dLuc-transgenic rats. This study was financially ALK inhibitor supported by the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences (SRPBS) to K.H. and S.H. and a Grant-in Aid for Science from the MEXT (No. 20249010 to K.H.). Abbreviations ad-MAP ad libitum MAP drinking CPU caudate–putamen
FEO food-entrainable oscillatior Fisher’s PLSD test Fisher’s Protected Least Significant Difference test LD light–dark cycles MAP methamphetamine MAO MAP-induced oscillator OB olfactory bulb PC parietal cortex Per2-dLuc Period2-dLuciferase pre-R pre-restriction RF restricted daily feeding R-MAP restricted-MAP drinking R-Water restricted water supply SCN suprachiasmatic nucleus SN substantia nigra WEO water-entrainable oscillator “
“Although originally described as a signalling system encompassing the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, their endogenous agonists (the endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes regulating the levels of such agonists, the endocannabinoid system is now viewed as being more complex, and including metabolically related endocannabinoid-like mediators and their molecular targets as well.