It was found that, before 2001, B51+ individuals displayed
significantly lower pVL than the other patients (median: 5150 vs. 18 000 RNA copies/ml, P= 0.048); however thereafter this protective effect waned and disappeared, whereas no changes were observed for any other alleles over time. These results indicate that, at a population level, some HLA alleles have been losing their beneficial effects against HIV disease progression over time, thereby possibly posing a significant challenge for HIV vaccine development. However such detrimental effects 3-deazaneplanocin A clinical trial may be limited to particular HLA class I alleles. HIV-1 is the causative agent for AIDS. Since the discovery of HIV-1 in 1983, although a myriad of studies focusing on the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection have been conducted, a number of questions remained unanswered, hampering development of HIV/AIDS vaccines. As the HIV-1 epidemic has continued, it has become evident that the rate of decline in CD4+ T cells varies considerably between infected people, and that untreated individuals with larger pVL during the asymptomatic phase of infection progress to AIDS more rapidly than those with lower pVL (1, 2). Host genetics, host innate and adaptive immune selleck products responses, and
viral sequence variations have all been suggested as possible factors influencing the level of viremia and disease outcome (3–5). Amongst host genetic factors, HLA class I types are recognized to be the most influential with respect to disease progression (6–9), indicating that the effects of HLA class I molecules on HIV-1 specific CTL responses play a major role in controlling viremia. A number of studies have reported differential impacts of HLA class
I allele expression on the level of the pVL and/or disease outcome: HLA-B27, B51 and B57 are associated with lower pVL and better clinical outcome (7, 10–12), whereas HLA-B*3502/3503 and B53 have a detrimental effect on these parameters (6, 8, 13, 14). However, such studies have been performed either in Western countries, such as the United States (6, 7, 11), or in South Africa (12), where Caucasians and/or Africans dominate over other ethnic groups; accordingly information from Asian countries is largely lacking, although an estimated ioxilan 5.0 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in Asia in 2007, accounting for 15% of the world total (15). Because people living in Asia have distinct patterns of HLA class I profiles, the known associations between HLA class I allele expression and HIV disease outcome may be applicable only to a limited geographical area on the globe. In order to design globally effective HIV vaccines that aim to induce CTL responses restricted by HLA class I molecules, it is crucial to identify the differential ability of HLA class I alleles to control viremia in different parts of the world. Of importance, CTL escape mutations have been shown to accumulate in populations (16, 17), suggesting that we have been losing targeting epitopes.