More than 80% of clinical CoNS strains and 30% to 40% of CoNS obtained from healthy carriers or patients from the community are resistant to methicillin . Bactroban Nasal (Mupirocin ointment) has been approved for nasal clearance of S. aureus and significantly reduces the risk of postoperative staphylococcal infection
in carriers . However, mupirocin IWR 1 resistance has already been reported, and its use is restricted in many countries. A superior product for intranasal prophylaxis in at-risk patients is therefore an unmet medical need. New chemical entities take longer to develop, and killing by broad-spectrum antibiotics is undesirable. Current efforts are therefore focused on pathogen-specific biological entities such as peptidoglycan hydrolases , antibodies , and other this website antimicrobial peptides and proteins . For example, lysostaphin is a bacterial
peptidoglycan hydrolase that has been extensively studied for its antistaphylococcal activity in various animal models [13–15]. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and kill bacteria and have co-evolved with bacterial defenses . Bacteriophages have been used for human therapy in several Eastern European countries for decades . Although they have not been used in clinical applications in Western countries, the United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of bacteriophages to prevent bacterial contamination in meat . In
addition, bacteriophages are a good source of cell wall-degrading enzymes, which have been evaluated as antibacterial agents [19–21]. P128 is a novel chimeric protein that derives its staphylococcal Selleck Sirolimus cell wall-degrading enzymatic domain from the gene product, ORF56, of bacteriophage K and the cell wall-targeting domain (SH3b) from Lysostaphin (Pubmed accession no. of Lysostaphin gene: M 15686.1). We have previously reported the construction of this novel chimeric protein and assignment of its peptidoglycan hydrolase activity to the Cysteine, Histidine-dependent AmidoHydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain. We also demonstrated the efficacy of P128 in nasal clearance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; strain USA300) in a rodent model . P128 is under development for topical indications including use against S. aureus nasal carriage. In this study we tested the antistaphylococcal activity of P128 by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and activity against Staphylococci from human nares. Methods Bacterial strains All S. aureus strains used in the study are listed in Table 1. These include 30 clinical strains (27 MRSA strains and 3 MSSA strains) from the Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey and two USA 500 strains. Table 1 MIC and MBC of P128 against 32 Staphylococcus aureus strains Sl. No.