The reversal impairment resulting from co-administration of nafad

The reversal impairment resulting from co-administration of nafadotride and quinpirole was associated with both perseverative and learning errors.

Our Avapritinib research buy data indicate distinct roles for D2 and D3 receptors in the

capacity to modify behavior flexibly in the face of environmental change.”
“Purpose: [I-123]Epidepride is a radio-tracer with very high affinity for dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors in brain. The importance of alteration in dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor binding condition has been wildly verified in schizophrenia. In the present study we set up a rat schizophrenia model by chronic injection of a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, to examine if [I-123]epidepride

could be used to evaluate the alterations of dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor binding condition in specific brain regions.

Method: Rats were given repeated injection of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, 0.3 mg/kg) or Selleckchem GDC0449 saline for 1 month. Afterwards, total distance traveled (cm) and social interaction changes were recorded. Radiochemical purity of [I-123]epidepride was analyzed by Radio-Thin-Layer Chromatography (chloroform: methanol, 9:1, v/v) and [I-123]epidepride neuroimages were obtained by ex vivo autoradiography and small animal SPECT/CT. Data obtained were then analyzed to determine the changes of specific binding ratio.

Result: Chronic MK-801 treatment for a month caused significantly increased local motor activity and induced an inhibition of social interaction. As shown in [I-123]epidepride ex vivo Bcl-2 inhibitor autoradiographs, MK-801 induced a decrease of specific binding ratio in the striatum (24.01%), hypothalamus (35.43%), midbrain (41.73%) and

substantia nigra (37.93%). In addition, [I-123]epidepride small animal SPECT/CT neuroimaging was performed in the striatum and midbrain. There were statistically significant decreases in specific binding ratio in both the striatum (P < .01) and midbrain (P < .05) between the saline and MK-801 group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that [I-123]epidepride is a useful radio-tracer to reveal the alterations of dopamine D-2/D-3 receptor binding in a rat schizophrenia model and is also helpful to evaluate therapeutic effects of schizophrenia in the future. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity.

IL-6 and CRP levels were elevated among those with lifetime depre

IL-6 and CRP levels were elevated among those with lifetime depression and, among those with depression only, IL-6 methylation showed an inverse correlation with circulating IL-6 and CRP.

Conclusions. Genome-wide methylation profiles distinguish individuals with versus without lifetime depression in a community-based setting,

and show coordinated signals with pathophysiological mechanisms previously implicated in TGF-beta inhibitor the etiology of this disorder. Examining epigenetic mechanisms in concert with other dynamic markers of physiologic functioning should improve our understanding of the neurobiology of depression.”
“This study considers an optimal intervention strategy for influenza outbreaks. Variations in the SEIAR model are considered to include seasonal forcing and age structure, and control strategies include vaccination, antiviral treatment, and social distancing such as school closures. We formulate an optimal control problem by minimizing the PF-6463922 in vivo incidence of influenza outbreaks while considering intervention costs. We examine the effects of delays in vaccine production, seasonal

forcing, and age-dependent transmission rates on the optimal control and suggest some optimal strategies through numerical simulations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is under-researched despite its high prevalence and large impact on the healthcare system. There is a paucity of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that explore the neural correlates of emotional processing in GAD. The present study investigated the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to processing positive and negative facial emotions in patients with GAD.

Method. A total of 15 female GAD patients and 16 female controls undertook an implicit face emotion task during

fMRI scanning. They also performed a face emotion recognition task outside the scanner.

Results. The only behavioural difference observed in GAD patients was less accurate detection of sad facial expressions compared with control participants. However, GAD patients showed an attenuated BOLD signal in the prefrontal cortex to fearful, sad, angry and happy facial expressions find more and an attenuated signal in the anterior cingulate coztex to happy and fearful facial expressions. No differences were found in amygdala response.

Conclusions. In contrast with previous research, this study found BOLD signal attenuation in the ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex during face emotion processing, consistent with a hypothesis of hypo-responsivity to external emotional stimuli in GAD. These decreases were in areas that have been implicated in emotion and cognition and may reflect an altered balance between internally and externally directed attentional processes.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) consumption by red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin (Hb) in vasculature is critical in regulating the vascular tone.

We found that amphetamine had no effect on Wnt5a or Wnt7a express

We found that amphetamine had no effect on Wnt5a or Wnt7a expression but increased Wnt3. We then measured protein expression of Wnt3, phosphorylated lipoprotein-related peptide 6, GSK-3 beta phosphorylated at serine-9 and tyrosine-216 and total beta-catenin. We found that amphetamine increased Wnt3

protein expression, increased pLRP6 (threonine-1572) levels, increased beta-catenin levels, increased GSK-3 beta phosphorylation at serine-9, consistent with inhibition of GSK-3 beta activity, and diminished GSK-3 beta phosphorylation at tyrosine-216. Our data support the hypothesis BMS-754807 concentration that proximate Wnt signalling is rapidly activated by amphetamine in the adult rat nucleus accumbens. NeuroReport 23:846-850 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The primary goal of this study was to examine the biochemical abnormalities of late-life major depression by using 3-tesla (3-T) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The antidepressant effects on the biochemical abnormalities were investigated as well. Study participants were 27 elderly patients with major depressive disorders (among which 9 were

on antidepressant medication) and 19 comparison elderly subjects. (1)H-MRS spectra were acquired from voxels that were placed in the left frontal white matter, left periventricular LY294002 purchase white matter, and left basal ganglia. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol to creatine were calculated. Patients with late-life major depressive disorder had a significantly lower NAA/creatine ratio in the left frontal white Magnesium chelatase matter, and higher Cho/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratios in the left basal ganglia when compared with the control subjects. The myoinositol correlated with global cognitive function among the patients. The biochemical abnormalities in late-life major depressive disorder

were found on the left side of the frontal white matter and the basal ganglia. Neuron degeneration in the frontal white matter and second messenger system dysfunction or glial dysfunction in the basal ganglia are suggested to be associated with late-life depression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The association of genetic lesions detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with survival was analyzed in 1069 patients with newly presenting myeloma treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial, with the aim of identifying patients associated with the worst prognosis. A comprehensive FISH panel was performed, and the lesions associated with short progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis were +1q21, del(17p13) and an adverse immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) translocation group incorporating t(4;14), t(14;16) and t(14;20).

, & Cohen,J (1998) Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes see Nat

, & Cohen,J. (1998). Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes see. Nature, 391(6669), 756]. As one has lost the veridical location of one’s hand, one should not be able to correctly guide one’s hand movements. An accurate representation of the location of body parts is indeed a necessary pre-requisite for any correct motor command [Graziano, M. S. A., & Botvinick, M. M. (1999). How the brain represents the body: Insights from neurophysiology and psychology. In D. Gopher, & A. Koriat (Eds.), Attention and performance XVII-Cognitive regulation of performance interaction of theory and application (pp. 136-157)]. However, it has not yet been investigated

whether action is indeed affected by the proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand, nor has the resistance of visual capture in the RHI to new proprioceptive information been assessed. In the present two kinematic experiments, we show for the first time Entospletinib nmr that action resists the

click here RHI and that the RHI resists action. In other words, we show a dissociation between illusion-insensitive ballistic motor responses and illusion-sensitive perceptual bodily judgments. Moreover, the stimulated hand was judged closer to the rubber hand for the perceptual responses, even after active movements. This challenges the view that any proprioceptive update through active movement of the stimulated hand erases the illusion. These results expand the knowledge about representations of the body in the healthy brain, and are in line with the currently MYO10 most used dissociation between two types of body representations so far mainly based on neuropsychological patients [Paillard, J. (1991). Knowing

where and knowing how to get there. In J. Paillard (Ed.), Brain and space (pp. 461-481); Paillard, J. (1999). Body schema and body image: A double dissociation in deafferented patients. In G. N. Gantchev, S. Mori, & J.Massion (Eds.), Motor control, today and tomorrow (pp. 197-214)]. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Degarelix is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist (blocker) with rapid onset of action suppressing gonadotropins, testosterone and prostate specific antigen in prostate cancer. In the present open label, randomized study in North America we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a starting dose of 200 mg degarelix followed by monthly injections of 60 or 80 mg during 1 year of prostate cancer treatment.

Materials and Methods: A total of 127 patients (median age 76 years, range 47 to 93) with histologically confirmed prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Efficacy was assessed by measuring serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen.

Results: Median baseline testosterone and prostate specific antigen levels were 4.13 ng/ml (P25-P75 3.03-5.11) and 13.4 ng/ml (P25-P75 6.80-25.7), respectively.

The primary outcome was early infant mortality (deaths until 90 d

The primary outcome was early infant mortality (deaths until 90 days post partum). Secondary outcomes were neonatal mortality, fetal loss (abortions and stillbirths), and low birthweight. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor registered as an International

Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN34151616.

Findings Infants of women consuming MMN supplements had an 18% reduction in early infant mortality compared with those of women given IFA (35 . 5 deaths per 1000 livebirths vs 43 per 1000; relative risk [RR] 0 . 82, 95% CI 0. 70-0.95, p=0 . 010). Infants whose mothers were undernourished (mid upper arm circumference <23 . 5 cm) or anaemic (haemoglobin <110 g/L) at enrolment had a reduction in early infant mortality of 25% (RR 0 . 75, 0.62-0.90, p=0. 0021) and 38% (RR 0 . 62, 0 . 49-0.78, p<0 . 0001), respectively. Combined fetal loss and neonatal deaths were reduced by 11% (RR 0 . 89, 0 . 81-1. 00, p=0 . 045),

with significant effects in undernourished (RR 0 . 85, 0.73-0.98, p=0 . 022) or anaemic (RR 0 . 71, 0.58-0.87, p=0 . 0010) women. A cohort of 11101 infants weighed within 1 h of birth showed a 14% (RR 0 . 86, 0.73-1 .01, p=0.060) decreased risk of low birthweight for those in the MMN group, with a 33% (RR 0 . 67, 0 . 51-0 . 89, p=0. 0062) decrease for infants of women anaemic at enrolment.

Interpretation Maternal MMN supplementation, as compared with IFA, can reduce early infant mortality, especially in undernourished and anaemic women. Maternal MMN supplementation might therefore be an important

part of overall strengthening of prenatal-care programmes.”
“Introduction Copanlisib supplier not The aim of this study was to determine the performance of axial and coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the narrowing of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at the high convexity and high midline areas, which is speculated to be one of the clinical characteristics of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

Methods We retrospectively examined axial and coronal T1-weighted images of 14 iNPH patients and 12 age-atched controls. The narrowness of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline was blindly evaluated by five raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results Axial and coronal imaging accurately determined the presence of the narrow cisterns/sulci at the high convexity/midline and was capable of predicting probable/definite iNPH with a high degree of accuracy. there were also no significant differences in the detection of this finding between the axial and coronal images.

Conclusion Both axial and coronal T1-weighted MRI can detect the narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline accurately and may therefore facilitate clinicians in choosing a management strategy for iNPH patients.”
“Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure.

We also investigated

the role of a GABA(A) modulator (mid

We also investigated

the role of a GABA(A) modulator (midazolam, 1, 1.75 or 2.5 mg/kg body weight) in the long-lasting behavioural changes in adulthood (85 days). Results indicate that neonatal finasteride decreases both novelty-exploration (head-dipping and locomotion) and anxiety-relevant scores (the FRAX597 mw distance travelled in and the number of entries into the central zone) at adolescent age, along with a reduction in body weight and general locomotion. Also, neonatal AlloP administration decreases prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Prepulse inhibition disruption was only partially reproduced decreasing the neonatal AlloP levels by means of finasteride administration. Although there was no interaction between neonatal neurosteroid manipulation and adult benzodiazepine treatments, the effects of midazolam were dose-dependent: the lowest dose of midazolam increased whereas the highest disrupted the expected progressive reduction of the startle response (and the consequent improvement of the PPI percentage) after the gradual

increase in prepulse intensity. Reduced prepulse inhibition of startle provides evidence of deficient sensorimotor gating in several disorders, including schizophrenia. Alterations of AlloP levels during maturation could partly explain the inter-individual differences shown by adult subjects in response to novelty (exploration) and in the sensorimotor gating Selisistat chemical structure and prepulse inhibition. Also, abrupt changes in neonatal levels of AlloP could be related to a susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders. (C) 2009 Elsevier first Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although noroviruses play a significant role in causing foodborne illness in developed countries, no standardised method for detecting noroviruses in foodstuffs is currently available. This study compared four virus recovery methods based on ultrafiltration, immunomagnetic separation, ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation techniques using identical real-time RT-PCR protocols for

detection of RNA in eluates from lettuce, sliced ham and raspberries inoculated artificially with genogroup II norovirus. Noroviruses in all the food source matrices were successfully detected by all four methods. Ultracentrifugation yielded the highest recovery efficiencies in lettuce and ham, whereas PEG precipitation recovered the highest yield of noroviruses from raspberries. The repeatability of the results and the applicability of the methods to all food matrices were best with PEG precipitation, which had average virus recoveries of 19%, 47% and 28% for lettuce, ham and raspberries (viral RNA in dilution 1:10), respectively. In each case, a tenfold dilution of the extracted RNA clearly reduced the level of PCR inhibitors, which were released from raspberries in particular.

Etiologies were Takayasu’s arteritis in 7, polyarteritis nodosa i

Etiologies were Takayasu’s arteritis in 7, polyarteritis nodosa in 4, indeterminate in 3, and giant cell arteritis in 1. The celiac axis was, (SMA) in 13, renal arteries in 8, and the aorta in 4. Seven patients had active affected in 13, superior mesenteric artery disease, and eight were in remission. Nine (60%) presented with symptomatic chronic MK-4827 research buy (n = 8) and acute (n = 1) mesenteric ischemia. Six patients with asymptomatic disease underwent mesenteric revascularization during other aortic-based operations. Fourteen patients

(93%) had 10 mesenteric bypasses (8 aortic based; 2 iliac), three had aortoplasties, of which two had mesenteric patch angioplasties, and one underwent arcuate ligament release with patch angioplasty. One patient (7%) underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of SMA stenosis. There were no early deaths. Early complications occurred in three patients (20%) after open reconstruction, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage, ileus with re-exploration, and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Median follow-up

was 22 months. One graft thrombosis in a patient with active disease was treated with redo bypass 74 months after aorta-celiac-SMA bypass. All patients were alive at 10 years, with similar expected survival compared with the general population (P=.69). Compared buy THZ1 with patients with atherosclerotic disease, open reconstructions for MV had similar freedom from mesenteric symptoms (83% vs 75%, P=.80) and similar primary graft patency D-malate dehydrogenase (83% vs 84%, P =.9).

Conclusion: Mesenteric vasculitis is a rare manifestation of Takayasu arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, indeterminate, or giant cell arteritis. Open revascularization is durable and effective when needed. (J Vasc Surg

“Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are childhood onset developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social skills and repetitive behavior, and also for classic autistic disorder, a significant impairment of communication. In addition to these core symptom domains, persons with ASDs frequently exhibit interfering behavioral symptoms, including irritability marked by aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums. Aripiprazole is an atypical or newer generation antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action impacting dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. The drug has been found efficacious for several indications, including most recently for use targeting irritability associated with autistic disorder in youth. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of developmental disability and the most common known single gene cause of ASDs. As in idiopathic ASDs, irritable behavior is often exhibited by persons with fragile X syndrome. However, research to date in this disorder has not focused on this target symptom cluster. An initial pilot study has begun to assess the impact of aripiprazole on irritability in youth with fragile X syndrome.

No significant differences in AD risk were found in single SNP an

No significant differences in AD risk were found in single SNP and haplotype analyses for PPARG gene between the study groups. We conclude that PPARG gene does not play a major role in the genetic predisposition to AD in the Finnish population. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

the rat, single-prolonged stress (SPS) model produces a core AG-14699 symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the enhanced fear response to the traumatic cue (conditioned fear response). This investigative tool is typically used for PTSD studies. However, whether SPS can produce another core symptom of PTSD, hyperarousal (the sensitized fear response in animal models), has not been evaluated. It is also not clear whether SPS can enhance both conditioned and sensitized fear responses after different incubation times. In this study, a single inescapable electric foot shock was given to rats immediately after SPS procedures (SPS&S). After different incubation times (1, 7 or 14 days), the conditioned or sensitized fear response was measured by re-exposing the stressed rats to the shock context or a neutral tone

in a novel see more environment. Additionally, paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was administered after SPS&S for 14 days to test its potential preventive effect on PTSD-like symptoms. We observed that conditioned fear persisted and sensitized fear increased with ongoing incubation times after SPS&S. Early rapid intervention with paroxetine after SPS&S ameliorated PTSD-like symptoms in both fear responses and anxiety behaviors. Our data suggests that this modified SPS&S model may be both novel and predictably mimic the clinical characteristics of PTSD better than other investigative paradigms. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy results in substantial reductions in cardiovascular

events, and larger reductions in cholesterol may produce larger benefits. In rare cases, myopathy occurs in association with statin therapy, especially C1GALT1 when the statins are administered at higher doses and with certain other medications.

Methods: We carried out a genomewide association study using approximately 300,000 markers (and additional fine-mapping) in 85 subjects with definite or incipient myopathy and 90 controls, all of whom were taking 80 mg of simvastatin daily as part of a trial involving 12,000 participants. Replication was tested in a trial of 40 mg of simvastatin daily involving 20,000 participants.

Results: The genomewide scan yielded a single strong association of myopathy with the rs4363657 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within SLCO1B1 on chromosome 12 (P=4 x 10(-9)). SLCO1B1 encodes the organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP1B1, which has been shown to regulate the hepatic uptake of statins.

iCTA with intra-arterial contrast injection was performed in all

iCTA with intra-arterial contrast injection was performed in all patients for precise localization of the small vascular Nirogacestat in vitro lesion to facilitate craniotomy planning

and microsurgical approach. All operative reports, inpatient and outpatient records, and radiographic studies available were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: The iCTA was used to target 2 aneurysms, 3 small subcortical AVMs, and 3 dural arteriovenous fistulae. This technique was most helpful to localize the 3 AVMs and the distal M4 aneurysm precisely. Craniotomy planning was accurate in all instances; no complications related to the technique were noted, and all patients had uneventful postoperative recoveries.

CONCLUSION: iCTA is an effective and accurate novel technique that can enhance the safety of surgical treatment for small intra-axial vascular pathology.”
“Membrane penetration by reovirus requires successive formation of two cell entry intermediates, infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) and ISVP*s. In vitro incubation of reovirus virions with high concentration of chymotrypsin (CHT) results in partial digestion of the viral outer capsid to form ISVPs. When virions are

instead digested with low concentrations of chymotrypsin, the outer capsid is completely proteolyzed to form cores. We investigated the basis for the inverse relationship between CHT activity and protease susceptibility of Q-VD-Oph cell line the reovirus outer capsid. We report that core formation

following low-concentration CHT digestion proceeds via formation of particles that contain a protease-sensitive form of the mu 1C protein, a characteristic of ISVP*s. In addition, we found that both biochemical features and viral genetic requirements for ISVP* formation and core formation following low-concentration CHT digestion are identical, suggesting that core formation proceeds via a particle resembling ISVP*s. Furthermore, we determined that intermediates generated following low-concentration CHT digestion are distinct from ISVPs and convert to ISVP*-like particles much Erythromycin more readily than ISVPs. These results suggest that the activity of host proteases used to generate ISVPs can influence the efficiency with which the next step in reovirus cell entry, namely, ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion, occurs.”
“Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont of Brugia malayi parasite whose presence is essential for the survival of the parasite. Treatment of B. malayi-infected jirds with tetracycline eliminates Wolbachia, which affects parasite survival and fitness. In the present study we have tried to identify parasite proteins that are affected when Wolbachia is targeted by tetracycline. For this Wolbachia depleted parasites (B. malayi) were obtained by tetracycline treatment of infected Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) and their protein profile after 2-DE separation was compared with that of untreated parasites harboring Wolbachia.

B , 2000 Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-

B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126. 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research EPZ-6438 nmr on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression,

whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Generally treatment decisions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are based

on prostate selleck chemical size and surgeon experience. Prostates greater than 100 gm often require open surgery. However, less invasive options are available. Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is a viable and effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined the outcome of holmium laser enucleation of the

prostate based on prostate size.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients in our institutional review board approved database who about underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate from January 1999 to October 2006. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts based on preoperative transrectal ultrasound prostate measurements, including less than 75, 75 to 125 and more than 125 gm. Patients with prostate cancer were excluded from study. Demographic, laboratory, operative, preoperative and postoperative data were obtained.

Results: As prostate size increased, so did prostate specific antigen, and the urinary retention and enucleation rates. Hospitalization, catheterization, preoperative and postoperative outcomes were similar among the groups. On linear regression the decrease in prostate specific antigen highly correlated with the amount of tissue removed (p < 0.0001). The complication rate was similar among the treatment groups. All patients did equally well in terms of postoperative urinary function independent of prostate size.