In addition, in silico analysis of 113 rodA gene fragments retrieved from GenBank was performed and confirmed the suitability of this method. In conclusion, the method developed in this study allows easy distinction between A. fumigatus var. fumigatus and its variant ellipticus. In combination with the earlier developed PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method of
17-AAG cost Staab et al. (2009, J Clin Microbiol 47: 2079), this method is part of a sequencing-independent identification scheme that allows for rapid distinction between similar species/variants within Aspergillus section Fumigati, specifically A. fumigatus,A. fumigatus var. ellipticus,Aspergillus lentulus Balajee & K.A. Marr, Neosartorya pseudofischeri S.W. Peterson and Neosartorya udagawae Y. Horie, Miyaji & Nishim. Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic and opportunistic pathogenic fungus with a widespread occurrence. A. fumigatus is known to produce several secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins (e.g. gliotoxin). Increasing evidence supports a significant role of gliotoxin
in hampering various defence mechanisms of the host, leading to virulence SCH 900776 ic50 enhancement (Kupfahl et al., 2006; Hof & Kupfahl, 2009; Kwon-Chung & Sugui, 2009). The level of gliotoxin production by A. fumigatus isolates can vary or even be completely absent (Lewis et al., 2005; Kosalec & Pepeljnjak, 2005; Boudra & Morgavi, 2005; Kupfahl et al., 2008; Pereyra et al., 2008; E. Van Pamel, E. Daeseleire, M. Heyndrickx, L. Herman, A. Verbeken & G. Vlaemynck, unpublished data). This fungus is known to cause allergic reactions and mycotoxicoses, and is believed to be responsible for more than 90% of invasive aspergillosis in humans (Denning,
1998; Latge, 1999, 2001). Aspergillus fumigatus has often been considered to be a homogeneous species based on macro- and microscopical analysis. However, because of the difficulty of distinguishing this species from other closely related species within Aspergillus Thymidylate synthase section Fumigati based on morphological features alone, misidentification and underestimation of the number of different species within this section have been frequently encountered (Balajee et al., 2004, 2005a, 2006; Hong et al., 2005). Over time, phenotypic (e.g. morphology and extrolite profiles) and genotypic (e.g. β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) data have been combined. This has resulted in the description of 33 taxa within Aspergillus section Fumigati (Samson et al., 2007). Besides phylogenetic analysis of gene fragment sequences of β-tubulin, actin, hydrophobin, mitochondrial cytochrome b and calmodulin (Geiser et al., 1998; Wang et al., 2000; Balajee et al., 2005a, 2007; Hong et al., 2005; Rydholm et al., 2006; Samson et al., 2007), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), microsatellite length polymorphism and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analyses are considered to be the three most powerful genotypic methods for studying A.