“How to provide better primary care

“How to provide better primary care PKA inhibitor and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded

through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong SIS3 in vivo Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices.

Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public

health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong’s policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.”
“Background: The presence of fungi and bacteria in the paranasal sinuses may contribute to ongoing inflammation. Lysozyme GDC-0973 nmr is an innate immune peptide with bactericidal and fungicidal activity. The expression of lysozyme in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is poorly understood and deficiencies in lysozyme expression may contribute to the ongoing inflammation in CRS patients.\n\nObjective: Determine lysozyme expression in sinus mucosa of normal and CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps.\n\nMethodology: Sinus mucosa specimens (n = 82) were processed for standard histology, immunohistochemical localisation of lysozyme, immunofluorescent localisation of fungi, and qPCR analysis of lysozyme expression.\n\nResults: CRS specimens displayed high-levels of lysozyme immunoreactivity in many of the abundant serous cells. Moderate levels were detected in some epithelial cells and inflammatory cells.

No other major

No other major LDK378 complications occurred (which the authors defined as death, neurovascular injury, pneumothorax, and infection). Inadvertent puncture of the dura did not occur. Minor complications included vasovagal response and transient pain during the administration of injectate, which were resolved by the termination of the procedure. The ease of identifying the ribs fluoroscopically and utilizing the rib as a conduit into the foramen provided an advantage in patients with osteopenia, severe osteoarthritis,

and scoliosis compared with previously described techniques.\n\nConclusion: This study evaluated an innovative technique to perform fluoroscopically directed thoracic intraforaminal nerve blocks that showed few complications and anatomically avoided transgression of structures in the posterior mediastinum. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Urban sprawl and increasing economical pressure on agricultural production raises new unprecedented environmental questions. The presented study proved that higher level of fertilization of the urban vegetation significantly

increases the concentration of male microgametophytes in the air during the flowering season. The levels of fertilization had no significant selleck kinase inhibitor effect on the pollen grain size, nor on the profile and content of the phenolic compounds, however, the content of tryptophan (protein with a key role in allergies) was significantly influenced. The metabolism of tryptophan and its role in human imunilogy is not yet completely understood, however, it is recommended to avoid unnecessary fertilization in urbanized areas.”
“In order to identify genes Dinaciclib that are involved in oncogenesis and to understand how such genes affect cancers, abnormal gene expressions in cancers are actively studied. For an efficient access to the results of such studies that are reported in biomedical literature, the relevant information is accumulated via text-mining

tools and made available through the Web. However, current Web tools are not yet tailored enough to allow queries that specify how a cancer changes along with the change in gene expression level, which is an important piece of information to understand an involved gene’s role in cancer progression or regression. OncoSearch is a Web-based engine that searches Medline abstracts for sentences that mention gene expression changes in cancers, with queries that specify (i) whether a gene expression level is up-regulated or down-regulated, (ii) whether a certain type of cancer progresses or regresses along with such gene expression change and (iii) the expected role of the gene in the cancer.”
“Background: Many commencing junior doctors worldwide feel ill-prepared to deal with their new responsibilities, particularly prescribing.

The introduction of 3H4MV as a second monomer will improve the ma

The introduction of 3H4MV as a second monomer will improve the material properties of 3HB-based polymers. To promote the accumulation of PHA containing 3H4MV monomer, isocaproic acid was provided as co-carbon source. Approximately 1 mol% of 3H4MV was detected in wild type Burkholderia sp. cultures when they were fed glucose or fructose together with isocaproic acid. Thus, the wild type strain can synthesize the 3H4MV monomer. High 3H4MV fractions,

Galunisertib of about 40 mol%, were obtained when the transformed strain was cultivated on glucose or fructose together with isocaproic acid. In addition, the ability of the transformed strain to mobilize accumulated PHA containing 3H4MV monomer was demonstrated in this study. This is the first report on mobilization of the 3H4MV monomer. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of the present work was the development and characterization of two novel silane and imide ring containing vinylic macromonomers, N-(4-trimethylsiloxyphenyl) maleimide (TSPM) and N-(4-trimethylsiloxyphenyl) SB525334 mw pyromellitylimido-N’-phenylacrylate (TSPA), and their emulsion copolymerization in the presence of styrene (St) and butyl acrylate (BA) monomers. The purity and structural conformation of TSPM and TSPA were ascertained from elemental analysis,

FT-IR and NMR spectral studies. Thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of copolymers was

investigated by transition electron microscopy (TEM) and then the effect of TSPM and TSPA concentrations on the water absorption ratio was examined. The results show Sonidegib cost that compared with the film based on the pure P (St-co-BA) copolymers, the water-resistance of the emulsion films made of TSPM and/or TSPA was greatly improved. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background Over 100 genes have been implicated in the aetiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A detailed understanding of their independent and cumulative contributions to disease burden may help guide various clinical and research efforts. Methods Using targeted high-throughput sequencing, we characterised the variation of 10 Mendelian and 23 low penetrance/tentative ALS genes within a population-based cohort of 444 Irish ALS cases (50 fALS, 394 sALS) and 311 age-matched and geographically matched controls. Results Known or potential high-penetrance ALS variants were identified within 17.1% of patients (38% of fALS, 14.5% of sALS). 12.8% carried variants of Mendelian disease genes (C9orf72 8.78%; SETX 2.48%; ALS2 1.58%; FUS 0.45%; TARDBP 0.45%; OPTN 0.23%; VCP 0.23%. ANG, SOD1, VAPB 0%), 4.7% carried variants of low penetrance/tentative ALS genes and 9.7% (30% of fALS, 7.1% of sALS) carried previously described ALS variants (C9orf72 8.78%; FUS 0.45%; TARDBP 0.45%). 1.

The mMS is a multi-channel system of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA

The mMS is a multi-channel system of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), designed to fit into the spinal cord tissue gap after transection, with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS thus sucking the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. The stumps adhere to the microstructure of the mMS walls and remain in the mMS after removal of the vacuum. We show that the mMS preserves tissue integrity and allows axonal regrowth at 2, 5 and 19 weeks post lesion with no adverse tissue effects like in-bleeding

or cyst formation. Preliminary assessment of locomotor function in the open field suggested beneficial effects of the mMS. Additional inner micro-channels enable local substance delivery into the lesion SNX-5422 A-1210477 cost center via an attached osmotic minipump. We suggest that the mMS is a suitable device to adapt and stabilize the injured spinal cord after surgical resection of scar tissue (e.g., for chronic patients) or traumatic injuries with large tissue and bone damages. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective of the present

study is to investigate the efficacy of tobramycin dexamethasone combined with loteprednol for the treatment of anterior uveitis and its impact on serum IgG, IgA and IgE. 72 patients with anterior uveitis were randomly divided into study group and control group. The study group was treated with tobramycin dexamethasone and loteprednol, while the control group was only treated with tobramycin dexamethasone. All patients were followed up for six weeks. The clinical efficacy, healing time, side effects, serum IgG, IgA and IgE

changes were compared between the two groups. The clinical efficacy of the study group was significantly better than the control group; the healing time of the study group was shorter than the control group; the incidence of adverse reactions of the study group was 2.78% lower than 16.67% of the control group. There were significant differences between the two groups (P smaller than 0.05). After the treatment, see more the serum IgG and IgE levels in the study group were significantly lower than the control group. However, IgA level was higher in the study group (P smaller than 0.05). The efficacy of tobramycin dexamethasone combined with loteprednol for treating anterior uveitis is certainly better than tobramycin dexamethasone alone. The serum IgG and IgE levels were significantly reduced and the serum IgA levels were significantly increased, so it should be widely applied in clinical practice.”
“Sirtuin deacetylases regulate diverse cellular pathways and influence disease processes. Our previous studies identified the brain-enriched sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) deacetylase as a potential drug target to counteract neurodegeneration.

4% (n = 214) and 1-year mortality was 14 5% (n = 370) Univariate

4% (n = 214) and 1-year mortality was 14.5% (n = 370). Univariate determinants of the composite endpoint included age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, revascularization and NLR (P < 0.001 for all). The cohort was divided into NLR quartiles. Admission NLR was significantly higher in the diabetic group, 5.2 +/- 5.8 vs. 4.6 +/- 5.4 (P = 0.007). A step-wise increase find protocol in the incidence of the composite endpoint was noted across NLR quartiles for diabetic subjects; hazard ratio (HR) was

2.41 for fourth vs. first quartile (95% confidence interval = 1.63-3.53, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of the diabetic group showed that NLR remains as an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (adjusted HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-2.33, P = 0.048). However, in non-diabetics, HR for NLR was not significant (P = 0.35).\n\nConclusions: Increased NLR post-AMI is an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events in diabetics. Monitoring this easily obtainable new index allows prognostication and risk stratification.”
“Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem that results due to changes of diet and various environmental stress

factors in the world. Curcumin is a traditional medicine used for treatment of a wide AG-881 in vitro variety of tumors. However, antimetastasis mechanism of curcumin on CRC has not yet been completely investigated. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony

formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. We found that curcumin suppresses Sp-1 transcriptional activity and Sp-1 regulated genes including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in CRC cells. Curcumin inhibits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and enhances the expressions of several extracellular matrix components which play a critical role in invasion and metastasis. Curcumin reduces CD24 expression in a dose-dependentmanner in CRC cells. Moreover, E-cadherin expression is upregulated by curcumin and serves as an inhibitor of EMT. These results suggest that curcumin executes its antimetastasis function through downregulation of Sp-1, FAK, and CD24 and by promoting E-cadherin expression in CRC cells.”
“We have demonstrated the plasmonic characteristics this website of an ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) film coated with Ag nanoparticles. The simulation result shows that, under resonant and non-resonant excitations, the strongest plasmonic electric field of 1 nmta-C coated Ag nanoparticle is not trapped within the ta-C layer but is released to its outside surface, while leaving the weaker electric field inside ta-C layer. Moreover, this outside plasmonic field shows higher intensity than that of uncoated Ag nanoparticle, which is closely dependent on the excitation wavelength and size of Ag particles.

“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a stem cell tumor chara

“Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a stem cell tumor characterized by dysplastic features and ineffective hematopoiesis in the early phase and leukemic progression in the late phase. Speculating that differences in the expression of genes and microRNA (miRNA) in control and MDS-derived erythroid progenitors may cause ineffective erythropoiesis, we sorted common megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs) in bone marrow cells from three

lower-risk MDS patients, and compared expression levels of genes and miRNA with those from controls. In apoptosis-related pathways, the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes, such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, caspase 5, and Fas ligand, was elevated in MDS-derived MEPs, while those of anti-apoptotic CD40 and tumor necrosis factor were lower. Selleck Elafibranor In hematopoiesis-regulating pathways, RUNX1 and ETV6 genes showed reduced selleck compound expression. Expression profiling revealed that three and 35 miRNAs were significantly up- and down-regulated in MDS-derived MEPs.

MIR9 exhibited robust expression in MEPs and CD71+GlyA+ erythroid cells derived from one of the three patients. Interestingly, overexpression of MIR9 inhibited the accumulation of hemoglobin in UT-7/GM cells. Some of these alterations in gene and miRNA expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of ineffective hematopoiesis in lower-risk MDS and provide molecular markers for sub-classification and making a prognosis.”
“The multitude of cells constituting organisms are fragile and easily damaged day by day. Therefore, maintenance

of tissue morphology and function is fundamental for multicellular organisms to attain long life. For proper maintenance of tissue integrity, organisms must have mechanisms that detect the loss of tissue mass, activate the de novo production of cells, and organize those cells into functional tissues. However, these processes are only poorly understood. Here we give an overview of adult and juvenile tissue selleck screening library regeneration models in small fish species, such as zebrafish and medaka, and highlight recent advances at the molecular level. From these advances, we have come to realize that the epidermal and mesenchymal parts of the regenerating fish fin-that is, the wound epidermis and blastema, respectively-comprise heterogeneous populations of cells with different molecular identities that can be termed “compartments.” These compartments and their mutual interactions are thought to play important roles in promoting the proper progression of tissue regeneration. We further describe the current understanding of these compartments and discuss the possible approaches to affording a better understanding of their roles and interactions during regeneration.

Primary cultures of human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) were u

Primary cultures of human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) were used in the

in vitro tests. Expression of ANP and its receptors was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Agonist-induced cytoskeletal remodeling was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, and EC barrier function was characterized by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. In the murine model of ALI, LPS-induced lung injury was assessed by measurements of protein concentration and cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). LPS stimulation significantly increased mRNA expression levels of ANP and NPR-A in pulmonary EC. Pharmacological https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BafilomycinA1.html inhibition of NPR-A augmented LPS-induced EC permeability and blocked barrier protective effects of exogenous ANP on LPS-induced intercellular gap formation. In contrast,

pharmacological inhibition of ANP clearance receptor NPR-C significantly Selleckchem Nepicastat attenuated LPS-induced barrier disruptive effects. Administration of NPR-A inhibitor in vivo exacerbated LPS-induced lung injury, whereas inhibition of NPR-C suppressed LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein content. These results demonstrate for the first time opposite effects of NPR-A and NPR-C in the modulation of ALI and suggest a compensatory protective mechanism of endogenous ANP in the maintenance of lung vascular permeability in ALI. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Aim To explore the relationship between alteration in the expression of TWIST, highly conserved transcription factor from the basic helix-loop-helix family, and apoptosis of Hep-2 cells induced by chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel.\n\nMethods ACY-241 order Morphological changes of Hep-2 cells were observed by acridine orange cytochemistry staining. Viability of Hep-2 cells treated with various concentrations of paclitaxel was examined by cell proliferation assay. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of TWIST in response to paclitaxel at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours was examined

by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively.\n\nResults Typical morphological changes of apoptotic cells at 24 hours, 48 hours, or 72 hours after treatment wiyth paclitaxel (10 x 10(-9) mol/L) were observed.The cell survival rates significantly decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P=0.001). Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis increased with culture time (22.6 +/- 5.3% after 24 hours, 38.7 +/- 7.9% after 48 hours, and 52.4 +/- 14.3% after 72 hours; P=0.002). Both mRNA and protein expression of TWIST was markedly decreased at both mRNA levels and protein levels, at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours in the paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of Hep-2 cells (P<0.001).

Clinical Implications: In 2008, data

from the first CD20-

Clinical Implications: In 2008, data

from the first CD20-targeting B-cell depleting therapeutic trials using rituximab in MS were published. Since then, there has been a large body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of B-cell depletion mediated via anti-CD20 antibodies. Intense research efforts focusing on the immunopathological relevance of B-cells has gained significant momentum and given rise to a constellation of promising therapeutic agents for this complex B-cell-driven disease, including novel anti-CD20 antibodies, as well as agents targeting CD19 and BAFF-R. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Metabolic engineering (ME) of Clostridium acetobutylicum Quisinostat clinical trial has led to increased solvent (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) production and solvent tolerance, thus demonstrating that further efforts have the potential to create strains of industrial importance. With recently developed ME tools, it is now possible to combine genetic modifications and thus implement more advanced ME strategies. We have previously shown that antisense RNA (asRNA)-based downregulation of CoA transferase (CoAT, the first enzyme in the acetone-formation pathway) results in increased butanol to acetone selectivity, but overall reduced butanol yields and titers. In this study the

alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (aad) gene (encoding the bifunctional protein AAD responsible for butanol and ethanol production from butyryl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, respectively) was expressed from AG-881 in vitro the phosphotransbutyrylase (ptb) promoter to enhance butanol formation and selectivity, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor cancer while CoAT downregulation was used to minimize acetone production. This led to early production of high alcohol (butanol plus ethanol) titers, overall solvent titers of 30 g/L, and a higher alcohol/acetone ratio. Metabolic flux analysis revealed the likely depletion of butyryl-CoA. In order to increase then the flux towards butyryl-CoA, we examined the impact of thiolase (THL,

thl) overexpression. THL converts acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA) the first step of the pathway from acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA, and thus, combining thl overexpression with aad overexpression decreased, as expected, acetate and ethanol production while increasing acetone and butyrate formation. thl overexpression in strains with asRNA CoAT downregulation did not significantly alter product formation thus suggesting that a more complex metabolic engineering strategy is necessary to enhance the intracellular butyryl-CoA pool and reduce the acetyl-CoA pool in order to achieve improved butanol titers and selectivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 38-49. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“AimsThe great majority of ovarian clear cell carcinomas have a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1)-positive and oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative immunoprofile.

These children require specific treatment

These children require specific treatment Navitoclax order and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children

and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder).\n\nMethods: Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire.\n\nResults: For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer

CH5183284 manufacturer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child’s impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers’ scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children,

who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role.\n\nConclusions: The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL than parents of healthy children of the same age. Mothers of hearing-impaired children are especially affected, demonstrating a negative impact in almost all health domains. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD selleckchem producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification.\n\nResults: In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation.

01) The effects of these polymorphisms were not modified by pers

01). The effects of these polymorphisms were not modified by personal smoking or secondhand-smoke exposure.\n\nConclusions: Functional promoter variants in CAT and HMOX-1 showed ethnicity-specific associations with new-onset asthma. Oxidant gene protection was restricted to children living in low-ozone communities.”
“Familial aggregation of prostate cancer is likely to be due to multiple susceptibility loci, perhaps acting

in conjunction with shared lifestyle risk factors. Models that assume a single mode of inheritance selleck kinase inhibitor may be unrealistic. We analyzed genetic models of susceptibility to prostate cancer using segregation analysis of occurrence in families ascertained through population-based series totaling 4390 incident cases. We investigated major gene models (dominant, recessive, general, X-linked), polygenic models, and mixed models of susceptibility using the pedigree analysis software MENDEL. The hypergeometric model was used to approximate polygenic inheritance. The best-fitting Sapanisertib molecular weight model for the familial aggregation of prostate cancer was the mixed recessive model.

The frequency of the susceptibility allele in the population was estimated to be 0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.20), with a relative risk for homozygote carriers of 94 (95% Cl 46-192), and a polygenic standard deviation of 2.01 (95% Cl 1.72-2.34). These analyses suggest that one or more genes having a strong recessively inherited effect on risk, as well as a number of genes with variants having small multiplicative effects on risk, may account for the genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer. The recessive component would predict the observed higher familial risk for siblings of cases than for fathers, but this could also be due to other factors such as shared lifestyle by siblings, targeted screening effects, and/or non-additive effects of one or more genes.

Genet. Epidemiol. 34:42-50, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“The AQP9 gene contains a negative insulin response element, suggesting that it Entinostat may be modulated by insulin. Previously, we reported AQP9 overexpression in preeclamptic placentas but a lack of functionality of AQP9 in water and mannitol transport. We also observed high serum levels of insulin and TNF-alpha in preeclamptic women.\n\nObjective: To evaluate whether AQP9 expression is regulated by insulin in the human placenta, and whether the dysregulation of AQP9 observed in preeclamptic placentas may be related to the inability to respond to insulin stimuli.\n\nMethods: Explants from normal and preeclamptic placentas were cultured at different concentrations of insulin. Treatment with TNF-alpha was used to induce phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS), which may desensitize insulin action. AQP9 molecular expression and water uptake was determined.\n\nResults: Insulin decreased the molecular expression of AQP9 exclusively in explants from normal placentas in a concentration-dependent manner.